At Home in WWI Exhibition: Exploring Life on the Home Front through Household Objects

This page provides a guide to Living in the Past Community Archaeology Project’s 2014 CBA Festival of Archaeology Event, the ‘At Home in WWI Exhibition’, which took place in Derby on 19 July.

Most of the exhibits that were on display are summarised below. The aim was to explore life on the home front – considering the effects of national events upon local communities – through household objects. A broad range of objects were exhibited, in many cases alongside similar artefacts that might be found in the gardens of local Victorian and Edwardian terraced houses, by taking part in LIPCAP garden artefact surveys.

The exhibition was developed to commemorate the centenary of the outbreak of the First World War, and is published here today to mark the 100 year anniversary of the beginning of the Great War.

At Home in WWI Exhibition

At Home in WWI Exhibition

About At Home in WWI Exhibition

The exhibition explores the home in the local area at the outbreak of World War One, by presenting a range of historical sources. Our displays include photos of the period; extracts from newspapers and information from trade directories dating to 1914-18; 1914 maps; and memories of First World War experiences from local people that were written down or recorded in later years.

     As an archaeology project, we are especially interested in what might be learnt from material remains, particularly housing and household objects, so we exhibited things that may have been found in the home at this time, as well as artefacts of the types that the residents of older housing in Derby might find in the topsoil of their garden, for example when gardening.

     The exhibition uses this range of historical material to consider a number of themes relating to everyday experiences leading up to and during war, which were arranged within sections. These include: Home Comforts’ (housing and conditions, domestic technology, amenities and facilities); ‘Family and Community’ (including birth, marriage and death), incorporating ‘Family at War’ (exploring the experience of war through the stories of local people – including Mr Grundy, after whom the adjoining pub is named); ‘Keeping Up Appearances’ (looking at clothing and fashion); ‘Material World at War’ (exploring changing materials and material culture at this time); ‘Society and Culture at War’ (considering empire and Britishness, anti-German feelings, suffrage campaigns); ‘Work, Rest and Play’ (examining the changing work environment); and ‘Finding the Past’.

     We were very pleased to have the ‘Derby and Derbyshire War Memorials Project’ joining us for the exhibition. They provided a display of historical information, photographs, and artefacts relating to the military services, and to commemoration, during the Great War.

     This panel is illustrated by a photograph of Brook Walk (off Bridge Street and Ford Street), in the 1910s.i

WWI: Local and National CHanges

WWI: Local and National Changes

The Great War: national and local changes

This area of the exhibition presents WWI information by looking at global and national changes leading up to WWI, and during 1914, and considers the effects of the war upon local people.

    It incorporated pre-1914 and 1914 timelines, and WWI posters that emphasised action on the home front, and presents family histories of several Derby people who were affected by the war, including Mr Grundy, after whom the neighbouring pub was named, and family members of those taking part in the exhibition.ii

     It also presents information on the project, such as how to take part in LIPCAP activities, and on the CBA.

WWI Home Front Posters

     Copies of several reproduction WWI posters relating to the Home Front illustrate this section of the exhibition:iii

  • “Women are working day and night to win the war £25,000 immediately needed for the Women’s War Time Fund to provide rest-rooms canteens and hostels”
  • “ Lend your five shillings to your country and crush Germans”
  • “ National Service Women’s Land Army God speed the plough and the woman who drives it ”
  • “ Women of Britain say “Go!” ”
  • “ These women are doing their bit Learn to make munitions ”
  • “ The Key to the Munitions Men and Money situation Are you helping to turn it? ”
  • “ Women urgently wanted for the W.A.A.C […] ” (IWM)
  • “ Your country needs you ” (IWM)

WWI Information Sheets

Pre-1914 Timeline (European Historical Events), and 1914 Timeline.iv

Family at War Section

Family at War Section

Family and Community Section

This section of the exhibition looks at the material traces of family and community life in Derby, during and at around the time of the Great War. It explores love and marriage, and dealing with death in wartime. It is illustrated by a photograph of the Robinson family, who stand outside their home in Agard Street, Derby, c. 1910.v

Family at War Sub-section

This section of the exhibition remembers some of the Derby men who served in the forces during the First World War, and took a closer look at their background, family, work and housing, before, during and after the conflict, through family history, mementos, photos and documentary sources. It is illustrated by a photograph of Philip Jarrett’s ‘British’ Service Medal, with ‘Victory’ Medal Ribbon.vi

Who Was Mr Grundy? Display

This display provides information on Mr Grundy – the WWI soldier who lived in the neighbouring building, and gave his name to the pub now housed there – and his role in WWI. It is illustrated by a photograph of Clifford Grundy in WWI army uniform;vii and by two advertisements from local newspapers for Grundy’s provisions 1914.viii

Jim Riley Display

This display discusses the family and employment background of Jim Riley, a local railway worker who enlisted in the army through the [Lord] ‘Derby Scheme’ at the end of 1915, describes his role as a soldier during the conflict, and mentions what happened to Jim after the end of the war. This includes information on his ‘sweetheart’ Eva Wye, whom he later married, and who at the outbreak of war worked at Rowley’s textile factory, Uttoxeter Road, Derby, and continued to work there as a ‘munitionette’ when the factory was subsequently converted to manufacture armaments. The display is illustrated by several superb photographs.

     These are of Jim, in army uniform; of Eva (in the uniform worn by employees of, Derby), with a close-up photograph of the ‘sweetheart brooch’ containing a small photo of Jim that was worn by Eva; and a photograph of Jim and Eva taken just before or after (probably on the day of) their wedding in 1920. It also includes copies of several photographic postcards sent home by Jim during his time serving overseas, which continued until Autumn 1919. These are of a seated woman holding flowers, which Jim sent to Eva for her birthday in 1919; a postcard from the Rhineland – where his unit was stationed – with an image of Jim and his army comrades, inset on a local scene; and a humorous image, again of Jim and his army friends, behind a resort ‘photo board’ to give the impression that the group were in a boat on the river.ix

Bob Beeson Display

This display discusses the family and employment background of Bob Beeson, who before enlisting worked for the Midland railway (having also enlisted with the Notts. and Derby in 1912). Sadly Bob was killed in action, and his burial place remains unknown, although he is commemorated on the Loos battlefield memorial. The actions of Bob’s uncle are also briefly outlined. The display is illustrated by a photograph of Bob and his uncle, with their army unit in 1914, before embarking for France.x

Philip James Jarrett Display

This display discusses the childhood and family background, marriage, children, and employment of Philip James Jarrett, before he joined the army; his military record; and what happened to the family after the war. The display is illustrated by photographic portraits of Philip and his wife Nellie nee Spiby), probably taken on their wedding day in 1908, and of their daughter Nell, c. 1914.xi

James Henry Wood Display

This display discusses the pre-war background, including childhood and family, and marriage, family and employment in adult life, of James Henry Wood, who before enlisting through the [Lord] ‘Derby Scheme’ at the end of 1915 worked for the Midland railway. It also outlines his military record, and life after the war. The display is illustrated by photographic portrait of Ivy, daughter of James, taken c. 1920.xii

Love and Marriage in Wartime Sub-section

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From sin to sanctity: marriage after cohabitation Information Sheet

This display briefly outlines research by the project director that compared the parish records for marriages at local churches in July – September 1914, and during the same period 1915, to investigate co-habitation prior to marriage.

Mass matrimony? Information Sheet

This display briefly outlines research by the project director that examined increased numbers in births to single women and comparing the parish records for marriages at local churches in July – September 1914, and during the same period 1915, to determine rise in marriage rates. It is illustrated by a photograph of St Alkmund’s Church, taken from Queen Street, Derby, in 1903; and by an advertisements for engagement rings from a local newspaper, dating to 1917.xiii

Ceremonial Artefacts: Material Culture of Matrimony Artefact Exhibits and Explanation, and Information Sheet

This display describes and provides information to accompany the following exhibited artefacts: early 20th century wedding cake decorations (a plaster horseshoe with silver paper shoe and goose-feather foliage), and a piece of late 19th century wedding dress lace, reputedly carried by the bride as a ‘something old’ heirloom to the marriage ceremony at Watson Street chapel between James Henry Wood (see above) and Ethel Morton. It is illustrated by a 1917 advertisement from local a newspaper for a shop that used a ‘lucky’ horseshoe symbol to sell engagement and wedding rings; it also displays a photograph of Watson Street Baptist Chapel, demolished after WWII.xiv

Sweetheart Pendant Artefact Exhibit and Explanation Sheet

This display describes and provides information to accompany the exhibited artefact: a gold plated sweetheart Pendant, 1910s, with photograph of soldier and woman. It is illustrated by advertisements from local newspapers (dating to 1914 and 1915) for sweetheart pendants sold by a local jewellers.xv

Home Comforts Section

This section of the exhibition looks at housing, conditions, and household amenities such as water supply and sanitation, during the early decades of the 20th century, through material culture, oral history, photos, and written sources. This information sheet is illustrated by a photograph of West End court or yard, 1920s or earlier.xvi

Housing Sub-section

Home Comforts Section

Home Comforts Section

Plan of standard Edwardian small terraced house information sheet

This display provides a simple ground plan of a standard small late Victorian – early Edwardian terraced house, noting the names of rooms, and describing typical room use.

Historic Maps Display

OS 1:2500 historic maps of the nearby project study areas (Ashbourne Road and Friar Gate, 1914; and Little Chester, 1919) are displayed to show the extent of housing during the war-time period.

     Earlier OS 1: 2500 historic maps (Ashbourne Road, Friar Gate and West End areas, 1883 and 1901, 1914; Little Chester area, 1881 and 1901) are also displayed to demonstrate housing development in the area of the event venue during the late 19th century and early 1900s.xvii

Up and coming neighbourhoods: New suburban estates Display

This display discusses suburban housing development in the Ashbourne Road area in the late 19th century and in the years leading up to the First World War, considering the effects of the tram-line extension during this time. It is illustrated by a photograph of Cowley St., Derby, 1910s, showing new housing and businesses, and a photograph of a tram at the junction of Surrey Street and Ashbourne Road, Derby, in the early 1900s.xviii

Court Life Display

This display examines small courtyard, terraced and tenement housing in the area during and before the wartime period, considering issues such as poor conditions and housing shortages. It is illustrated by a photograph of a cast iron courtyard sign, in Brick Street, Derby.xix

Snapshot of Court Life Display

This display investigates a courtyard on King Street, Derby, in 1914, using a trade directory of this date to consider who lived in these houses, and their employment. It is illustrated by a photograph of the outer housing, and the 1:2500 map, both dating to 1914.xx

Memories of Local Housing: The West End Oral History Display

This display presents an extract from the memoir of late local resident Elsie Goodhead (nee Richardson),xxi in which she discusses housing in the West End after WWI. It is illustrated by a photograph of framework knitter’s housing in Markeaton Street, Derby.xxii

Household Amenities Sub-section

Household Amenities Display

Information Sheet

This sheet discusses the introduction of electrical power and gas supplies into homes during the late 19th and early 20th century. It is illustrated by advertisements from local newspapers for electric light bulbs (dating to 1918) and for gas cookers (dating to 1914).xxiii

Electrical Amenities Display

Electrical Amenities Display

Electricity Artefact Exhibits and Explanation Sheet

This display exhibits and describes wood and brass wall and ceiling light electricity plugs that date to the late 19th century – 1920s, and a chained and fringed brass light shade, dating to the early 1900s – 1920s, designed to cover an electric bulb. The explanatory sheet for the latter exhibit is illustrated by advertisements from local newspapers, from 1915 and 1916 editions, for electric light bulbs.xxiv

Food Preservation and Storage Information sheet

Food Storage and Preservation Display

Food Storage and Preservation Display

This sheet discusses is food refrigeration, preservation and storage within the small dwellings of local workers during the early 20th century, considering methods of keeping food safe from pests such as rats.

Food Preservation and Storage Artefact Exhibits and Explanation Sheet

This display exhibits and describes an early 20th century softwood and zinc ‘meat safe’, and enamelled steel measuring jug, with crocheted and beaded cotton milk-jug cover, both dating to the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The explanatory sheet for the latter exhibit is illustrated by an advertisement from a local newspapers, dating to 1916, for Bird’s custard.xxv The display also incorporates food tins, with reproduction labels portraying produce dating to c. 1914, and original food tins of similar date.xxvi

Keeping Warm at Bedtime Information sheet

This display discusses the lack of heating in the bedrooms of smaller housing, and and methods adopted to warm beds, such as rubber bottles and heated house bricks. It is illustrated by an advertisement for rubber hot water bottles from a 1916 edition of a local newspaper.xxvii

Hot Water Bottle Artefact Exhibits Explanation Information Sheet

This display exhibits and describes a 3 pint (1.7 L) late 19th – mid 20th century stoneware hot water bottle, and a similar 2 pint (1.14 L) example dating to the early – mid 20th century. The explanatory sheet for the latter exhibit is illustrated by an advertisement from a local newspapers, dating to 1916, for Bird’s custard.xxviii

Water, Sanitation and Waste Disposal Sub-section

On tap? Water Supply and Sinks Display

This display briefly outlines the development of domestic water supplies in the area during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, discussing ‘slop stones’ and other sinks, and the different locations and functions of sinks (in cellars, sculleries and kitchens) within the small terraced house of this date. It also considers relationships between running water and flushing toilets. It is illustrated by a photograph of a cellar slop stone sink, Ashbourne, Derbyshire.xxix

Down the Garden Path? Domestic Sanitation Display

The information sheet discusses the development and installation of flushing and indoor toilets in the local area during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, considering the homes of villa dwellers and shopkeepers, as well as less well-off households. The continued uses of ‘pail closets’, and late introduction of WCs after WWI, in poorer areas such as the overcrowded West End, is also discussed.

Privies Display

Privies Display

Privies Display

This sheet displays photographs of reconstructed late 19th – early 20th century ash-pail privies, and wash-house with shared stand-pipe, at the National Trust’s ‘Birmingham back-to-backs’.xxx

Sanitation and Waste Disposal Artefact Exhibits

A zinc-plated steel ‘ash-pail’, and late 19th – early 20th century enamelled steel lidded ‘slop’ bucket, are used to illustrate toilet facilities for many in the area at this time.

Dirty Business: Early 20th Century Waste Disposal Information Sheet

The information sheet discusses topics relating to waste disposal in the late 19th – early 20th century, such as recycling and scavenging of domestic waste, including the deposition of household ash and other rubbish with human sewage on arable fields. It is illustrated by a photograph of domestic early – mid 20th century refuse at a local 18th – mid 20th century waste disposal site, which LIPCAP hope to investigate in the future.xxxi

Telling it like it was: memories of past lives Oral History Display

This display presents an extract from the memoir of late local resident Elsie Goodhead (nee Richardson), in which she discusses domestic toilets in the West End after WWI. It is illustrated by a photograph of Elsie with her brother, outside their house in Leaper Street.xxxii

Keeping Clean Sub-section

Laundry Display

Laundry Display

Laundry Display

Information Sheet

The information sheet discusses the provision and use of wash-houses associated with small housing of 19th century date, and briefly considers the laundry equipment they often contained. It is illustrated by a photograph of a wash-house at the National Trust’s ‘Back-to-backs’ in Birmingham, and an advertisement for Sunlight and ‘Rinso’ laundry soaps from 1915 editions of local newspapers.xxxiii

Laundry Artefact Exhibits and Explanation Sheet

  • Zinc wash tub, early – mid 20th century
  • Wooden ‘dolly peg’, late 19th – early 20th century
  • Copper ‘posser’ with wooded handle, early 20th century
  • Wood and glass ‘wash-board’, 1920s-30s
  • Wooden ‘clothes horse’, late 19th – mid 20th century
  • Cast iron ‘Phoenix’ flat iron, early 20th century
  • Household soap, modern reproduction
  • Rickett’s laundry ‘blue’, modern reproduction

The explanatory sheet is illustrated with an advertisement from local a newspaper for Sunlight soap, dating to 1915.xxxiv

Bathing Beauties? The Weekly Dip Information Sheet

The information sheet outlines household bathing facilities in the late 19th – early 20th centuries, discussing the provision of indoor bathrooms, and taking baths where no bathroom was installed in the home; the facilities used for daily washing; and soaps used for personal hygiene. It is illustrated with advertisements from local newspapers, for Condy’s bath fluid, and for Pear’s soap, both dating to 1915.xxxv

Toilet sets: the early 20th century ‘en suite’! Display

This information sheet explains what were toilet sets were, how and why they were used, and where were they kept, briefly noting associated furniture. It is illustrated by an advertisement from a local newspaper, dating to 1915, for a washstand.xxxvi

En Suite Display

En Suite Display

Toilet Sets Artefact Exhibits, Explanation and Information Sheet

This sheet describes the toilet sets and washing on display: an early 20th century style enamelled steel bowl; an early 20th century refined earthenware (white-ware) chamber pot; a late 19th – early 20th century semi-porcelain wash-bowl and ewer (toilet set); and a bar of Bibby carbolic soap (TPQ 1892). It includes information on what toilet sets might tell us about life in the late 19th – early 20th centuries, briefly considering the role of ornamentation in distinguishing social status between the employers of domestic servants, and employees. It is illustrated by an advertisement from a local newspaper for toilet sets, dating to 1915.xxxvii

What you might find in your garden: Artefact Exhibit and Explanation Sheet

Refined earthenware (‘cane-ware’) chamber pot sherds, late 19th – early 20th century.

Keeping Clean and Creepy-Crawlies Oral History Display

This display presents an extract from the memoir of late local resident Elsie Goodhead (nee Richardson), in which she discusses domestic pests within West End housing after WWI. It is illustrated with advertisements from local newspapers, for Sanitas disinfectant (dating to 1914), and Keeting’s powder (dating to 1915).xxxviii

Spick and Span Information Sheet

This information sheet briefly discusses links between gender and community identity, and household cleanliness in the late 19th – early 20th centuries, considering the importance for some of cleaning areas outside the home, as well as the inside, and questioning the assumption that only women and girls carried out domestic chores. It also looks at household cleaning materials, exploring the development of ready-made preparations. It is illustrated by an advertisement for ‘Panshine’, from a local newspaper dating to 1915.xxxix

Household Chores Display

Household Chores Display

Household Chores: ‘Tools of the Trade’ Display

Artefact Exhibits, and Information and Artefact Explanation Sheet

The information on this sheet discusses rugs, carpeting, oil cloths and linoleum in the late 19th – early 20th centuries, and the equipment used to clean floor coverings at this time, exhibiting: a Ewbank carpet sweeper (c. 1910); an early 20th century cane carpet beater; and late 19th – early 20th century small door or hearth ‘rag rug’. It is illustrated by an advertisement from local a newspaper for Monkey Brand household soap, dating to 1915.xl

Domestic Service Display

Domestic Service Display

Domestic Service Display

Are you being served? Domestic Service Information Sheet

This information sheet discusses the conditions and difficulties of domestic services in the late 19th – early 20th centuries, especially for girls and young women, considering the need to leave the family home at an early age, the lack of freedom, and the hard work that frequently had to be done by children. It is illustrated by images of domestic servants extracted from local wartime newspaper advertisements.xli

Domestic Service and the Great War Information and Artefact Explanation Sheet

This sheet discusses domestic service and ‘the servant problem’ in the late 19th – early 20th centuries, and describes artefacts and clothing associated with domestic service at this time.

Artefact Exhibits

  • Female domestic servant uniform gift packet, early 20th century.
  • ‘Tin’ Trunk, 1900s-1930s.
  • Domestic servant call box, electric call button, and bell, early 20th century.

Society and Culture at War Section

This section of the exhibition looks at some of the attitudes surrounding war, nation and empire, and towards Germany, in the run up to the Great War, considering relationships between monarchy, religion and heroism and Britishness, and the role of education and popular culture in developing and maintaining these ideas. This information sheet is illustrated by the following topical cartoons from local newspapers, dating to 1914: ‘Your King and Country Need You’; cartoons: ‘The Cloud Burst’ , ‘The World’s Enemy’ and ‘Fate and Armageddon’.xlii

‘How the Troops Responded’ Display

Newspaper page with photographs of local army mobilisation at the outbreak of war.xliii

Outbreak of War Newspaper Display

Copy of the Derby Daily Telegraph newspaper, 4 August 1914.xliv

Empire Day Information Sheet

This information sheet discusses the educational backdrop of the late 19th – early 20th centuries, particularly attitudes towards and celebrations of empire. It is illustrated by a photograph of St John’s school, Mill Street, Derby, perhaps taken during the wartime period, possibly on Empire Day 1918; and an article from a local newspaper, describing ‘Celebrations at Local Schools’, for Empire Day 1916.xlv

Society & Culture At War Display

Society & Culture At War Display

Reading Matter: Book Exhibit, and Information and Explanation Sheet

This information sheet discusses attitudes towards Britishness and the German ‘foe’ and popular literature in the late 19th – early 20th centuries, and outlines the content of the books on display: Tales of Heroes and Great Men of Old; The Riddle of the Sands: A Record of Secret Service; Mr Britling Sees It Through; God the Invisible King; Mr. Standfast.

Combating Cowardice? Information and Artefact Explanation Sheet

The information on this sheet outlines the background and practices of the ‘Order of the White Feather’ during the early years of the war, and discusses a probable influence upon the movement, the Four Feathers novel, written by A W Mason and published in 1903, which is briefly described on this sheet, and an early copy provided for display. The sheet is illustrated by a 1915 report from a local newspaper entitled ‘White Feather Women’ on a court case of a woman who provoked a man to suicide by giving him a white feather.xlvi

Souvenirs of War Display

Continental Souvenirs of War Artefacts and Explanation Sheet

This explanatory sheet describes several souvenirs of the Great War from the continent: First World War Belgian postcard, French silk embroidered postcard, and shrapnel. It is illustrated by a photograph of a First World War shell case from Hill 60, Ypres.xlvii

British-made Souvenir Artefact and Explanation Sheet

The explanatory sheet describes the ‘Crested China’ (semi-porcelain) Militaristic (Military Drum) Ornament, 1914-18, on display, briefly discussing similar artefacts; it is illustrated by a photograph of a First World War military drum.xlviii

Nursing at Home Artefact Exhibits and Information Sheet

The information on this sheet discusses voluntary nursing, and local military hospitals, during the war, and describes an autograph book, most likely owned by a voluntary nurse working on a military ward of the Derbyshire Royal Infirmary in WWI. This artefact, displayed as photographic copies of pages from the book, contains the comments and verses of wounded soldiers in the hospital, mostly casualties of the second battle of Ypres in 1915.

DRI VAD Atutograph Book

DRI VAD Atutograph Book

     The sheet is illustrated by photograph captioned ‘Nurses and patients at Haye Leigh’, in a 1916 report in a local newspaper, and a report from 1915, entitled ‘Wounded soldiers at Derby’, which describes the arrival of some of the soldiers named in the book to the town, and their removal to the DRI.xlix

Girl Power Artefact Exhibit, Explanation and Information Sheet

The information on this sheet discusses Women’s suffrage before and during the war, and describes the suffragist brooch on display, which dates to the 1910s. It is illustrated by a photograph report on suffragist actions in 1916, from a local newspaper.l

Mourning in the First World War Artefact Exhibits, Explanation and Information Sheet

The information on this sheet discusses mourning in the late 19th – early 20th centuries, and changes during the war, describing the mourning wear (black silk mourning blouse, 1910s, and black skirt: late 19th century – 1918), and mourning cards, note paper, and envelopes (of late 19th – early 20th century date) that are displayed. It is illustrated by a advertisements from local newspapers, of a motorised hearse, dating to 1915, and for mourning costumes, from 1918.li

Mourning Wear Display

Mourning Wear Display

Keeping Up Appearances Section

This section of the exhibition looks at clothing and dress accessories at the outbreak of and during the war, considering changes caused by conflict conditions, informed by artefacts photos, oral history, and written sources. The display label is illustrated by an article on fashion from a local newspaper, dating to 1914.

Clothing and Dress Accessories Display

What you might find in your garden Information Sheet

This information sheet discusses the range of clothing accessories that might be found in the topsoil of local terraced house gardens, and outlines issues relating to artefact survival, and interpreting these finds. It is illustrated with an advertisement for clothing sold locally within a local newspaper, dating to 1915.lii

Dress Accessories: Artefact Exhibits and Explanation Sheet

  • Steel boot button, late 19th – early 20th century
  • Brass ‘hook and eyes’, 1910s
  • Steel bodice corset ‘stay’ (from the silk bodice on display), 1910s
  • Steel and brass button, late 19th century – 1910s
  • Copper alloy (probably brass and copper) and casein (imitating mother of pearl) cuff-link, early – mid 20th century
  • ‘Mother of pearl’ (shell) and cut glass buttons, early – mid 20th century
  • Ceramic button, early – mid 20th century

Dress Bodice Artefact Exhibit and Explanation Sheet

The explanatory sheet describes the silk dress bodies, dating to the 1910s, that is on display, and considers what it tells us about life in the past, and discusses methods taken to avoid stains on clothing that could not be laundered. It is illustrated by an article on dress fashion in a local newspaper, dating to 1914.liii

Silk Bodice Exhibit

Silk Bodice Exhibit

Corsets in the First World War Information Sheet

This sheet outlines the development of Corsets at the outbreak of WWI; discusses relationships between women’s under-garments, posture and identity, through the motifs of ‘strait-laced’ and ‘loose’ women; and explores changes in the manufacture and wearing of corsets during WWI. It is illustrated by a 1914 newspaper advertisement for corsets, and fashion article on corsets in 1918 from local newspapers.liv

Footwear Artefact Exhibits, and Information and Artefact Explanation Sheet

The information on this sheet outlines footwear and boot and shoe manufacturing in the town during 1914, using a local trade directory. It describes the mid 20th century men’s clogs on display, and is illustrated by advertisements for footwear in local newspapers, dating to 1914 and 1918.lv A box for footwear protectors, dating to the early 20th century, and fragment of footwear, are also displayed.

Footwear Display

Footwear Display

War-work Wear for Women Display

This sheet presents extracts on the new practice of women wearing trousers, from the pamphlet To Women War Workers: Some Homely Advice in Regard to their Maintenance of the Health and Comfort, and exhibits an early-mid 20th century pair of women’s breeches.lvi

Work, Rest and Play Section

This section of the exhibition looks at work, economy, and recreation, consisting at the changing work environment in wartime, including munitions, and increased pay; leisure, sports and past-times; and education. The section description sheet is illustrated with advertisements from local newspapers, for a Ford Car, dating to 1914; for gramophones, dating to 1914; for the appearance of the entertainer Jack Gallagher at a local theatre in 1915; and for Raleigh cycles, dating to 1914.lvii

Domestic Commerce and Economy Sub-section

Guess how many pennies in the jar Activity

This sheet invites visitors to guess how many old pennies are contained within the jar that is on display, with the opportunity to win an old penny dating to the wartime era.

Domestic Economy: Early 20th Century Money and weights Information Sheet

This information sheet outlines late 19th – early 20th century currency and weights, and is illustrated with an engraving extracted from an advertisements within a local Trade Directory, dating to 1915.lviii

Shopping Quiz

This sheet invites visitors to determine the cost of listed shopping within a restricted period of time, measured using an egg timer, using 1914 advertisements for Liptons and Maypole grocery shops from local newspapers.

Domestic Economy Display & Activity

Domestic Economy Display & Activity

Commerce on Ashbourne Road in 1914 Information Sheet

This information sheet lists commercial and industrial properties on Ashbourne Rd., Derby, recorded within the 1914 Derby and Burton-on-Trent Trade Directory.lix

Work Sub-section

Work in Wartime Information Sheet

This information sheet discusses work in local industries during the late 19th – early 20th centuries, considering the employment of women and children, and the combination of schooling and work for children; unequal wages and apprenticeships; and the need for children to contribute their earnings to the household income. It is illustrated by a photograph of a textile mill located on the corner of Bridge Street and Brook Street corner, Derby in the 1920s-30s.lx

Making shells for ‘our boys’ Information Sheet

This information sheet discusses women’s employment in the munitions industries during WWI. It is illustrated by an extract of the 1914 OS 1:2500 map that shows the location of one Derby shell factory, Peel Foundry, and a report ‘Men and Munitions. Sherwood Foresters Officer and “You at Home”’ from a 1915 edition of a local newspaper.lxi

Telling it Like it Was: Munitions Work Oral History Display

This display presents an extract from the ‘Home Front’ edition of the Imperial War Museum recordings ‘Voices of the First World War’, relating the comments of Lily Smith, a young woman from Belper who worked in Derby as a ‘munitionette’. It is illustrated by a photograph of a shell produced in Britain during WWI.lxii

Making Music and Munitions Wartime Work and Wealth Information Sheet

This sheet discusses the employment of women and children in armament factories during WWI, and considers the reports – and criticisms – of munition workers spending money on luxuries such as pianos and fur coats. It is illustrated by a advertisements from local newspapers for fur coats (dating to 1915), and pianos (dating to 1914).lxiii

Leisure Sub-section

Pianola Rolls Artefacts and Explanation Sheet

This sheet discusses the pianola rolls on display that date to c. 1914. It is illustrated by an advertisement for pianos, player-pianos and organs, dating to 1918, from a local newspaper.lxiv

Holidays at War Information Sheet

The information on this sheet outlines discusses It is illustrated by a photograph advertisements from local newspapers for holiday accommodation and travel, dating to 1914, and for advertisements asserting the safety of east coast resorts, from August 1914.lxv

On Holiday at War Display

On Holiday at War Display

On Holiday At War Information and Artefact Explanation Sheet

This sheet discusses holidays for local people at the outbreak of war, and is illustrated by advertisements from local newspapers, dating to 1914, for motor charabancs, and for Skegness, describing an early 20th century deck-chair on display.lxvi

Leisure Display

Leisure Display

Smoking Display

Smoking Information Sheet

This sheet discusses the practice of pipe tobacco smoking and increasing production and smoking of cigarettes in the late 19th – early 20th centuries; and smoking in wartime, considering the importance of cigarettes for servicemen, and increase in public smoking by women. It is illustrated by an advertisement from a local newspaper, dating to 1914, for Yeoman’s Old Derby Blend tobacco.lxvii

Artefact Exhibits and Explanation Sheet

  • Player’s ‘Navy Cut’ cigarette tin, mid 1910s
  • Clay tobacco pipe, 19th century style

Material World at War Section

Material World: The Great War Period

This section of the exhibition looks at the different materials used to manufacture goods during this period, through a range of objects that were commonly found in the home. It explores some of the changes that had taken, and were taking, place by and at this time, considering objects, styles, brands and materials that are no longer available, and those that are still with us today, or that were still made and used until recent times.

     The section information sheet is illustrated by advertisements from local newspapers, dating to 1914-18, for Bird’s Custard, Beecham’s Pills, Spa Iron Brew, Bovril, Rowntree’s Cocoa, Ford car, Raleigh cycles, Quaker Oats, Veno’s Cough Cure, and Robertson’s jam.lxviii

Plastics Display

From Tooth and Nail to Flying High: Early 20th century Plastics Information Sheet

This information sheet outlines what plastic is, and when it was first ‘man-made’; discusses the development of semi-synthetic plastics during the late 19th – early 20th centuries, considering the uses of celluloid at this time; and briefly explores the role of Derby in technological developments during and after WWI. It is illustrated by an advertisement from a local newspaper, dating to 1916, for a celluloid hair brush set.lxix

Plastics Ancient and Modern: Organic Materials Display

Organic Artefact Exhibits and Explanation Sheet

  • Ivory handled dining knife, late 19th century
  • Horn handled dining knife, late 19th century – early 20th century
  • Bone and Brass Button, early – mid 20th century
  • Carved Bone Brooch, early – mid 20th century

Semi-synthetic Artefact Exhibits and Explanation Sheet

The sheet describing the celluloid artefacts hair slides (dating to the 1910s), collar stiffener (dating to the late 19th – early 20th centuries), and manicure tools (dating to the early 20th century), and casein buttons (of early-mid 20th century date) is illustrated by advertisements from local newspapers, dating to 1916, for celluloid hair slides and celluloid or casein manicure sets.lxx

Plastics Display

Plastics Display

Stoneware Display

Utility Stoneware: A Derbyshire Success Story Information Sheet

This information sheet describes stoneware, and outlines when and where it was made, the importance of local industries in manufacturing the ware and the range of objects made from this material; it also discusses the decline of the industry. It is illustrated by advertisements from local newspapers, dating to 1915, for stone ginger.lxxi

Stoneware Display

Stoneware Display

Artefact Exhibit and Explanation Sheet

The explanatory sheet describes the stoneware artefacts on display: a stoneware flagon, late 19th – early 20th century, stamped W. Severn and Co.

Guess the weight of the flagon

This sheet invites visitors to guess how many old pennies are contained within the jar that is on display, with the opportunity to win an old penny dating to the wartime era.

Stoneware Storage Jars Artefact Explanation and Information Sheet

The information on this sheet briefly discusses the common discovery of stoneware sherds in the gardens of small Victorian and Edwardian terraced houses; and the use of stoneware storage jars during the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The sheet also describes the stoneware artefacts on display: a 5 pint (2.84 L) storage jar, dating to the late 19th – early 20th century; and a 1½ Lb (0.68 kg) Hartley’s preserve jar, dating to the early 20th century. It is illustrated by 1914 advertisements from local newspapers for Robertson’s jam, and for fruit-bottles.lxxii

Pancheon Artefact Exhibit and Explanation Sheet

This sheet describes the late 19th – early 20th century artefact on display, noting the material from which it is made, it’s function, and considering whether it was a valued possession; it notes the long period over which similar objects were used, and highlights early 20th century changes. It is illustrated by a 1916 advertisement from local a newspaper for pancheons.lxxiii

Pancheon Display

Pancheon Display

Finding the Past Section

This section of the exhibition looked at the ways in which artefacts find their way into Derby gardens; explains how and why archaeological investigations are integrated within the planning system; and outlines how to take part in LIPCAP, through building and garden surveys.lxxiv

Revealing and Recording the Past Information Sheet

This sheet describes how archaeological remains become buried; how home improvements might both reveal and destroy remains; and and the discusses the planning process with regard to the discovery, recording and preservation of archaeological deposits.lxxv

Archaeology in Derby: Houses and Gardens Information Sheet

This sheet briefly outlines the ancient and more recent remains that might be found within the gardens of small Victorian and Edwardian terraced houses, and considers the need for archaeological studies of the 19th and 20th centuries, discussing Historical Archaeology and investigation of ‘familiar’ contexts.lxxvi

Why Are Artefacts Found in Gardens in Victorian and Edwardian Terraced House?

This sheet discusses the processes by which artefacts might be deposited within the topsoil of Victorian and Edwardian terraced house gardens, looking at the casual loss and discard of artefacts, and briefly outlines the type of finds that are likely to be discovered through surface surveys. It is illustrated by a photograph of house construction in Derby, during the early years of the 20th century.lxxvii

Archaeology & Project Information Display

Archaeology & Project Information Display

Project information Section

What is LIPCAP? Information Sheet

This sheet describes what Living in the Past Community Archaeology Project does, and why; outlines who can take part; and who pays for and runs LIPCAP.

How to take part in LIPCAP Archaeological Fieldwork Information Sheet

This sheet describes the community fieldwork supported by LIPCAP – garden Artefact surveys and archaeological building survey – and how local householders might take part.

Who can take part in LIPCAP Information Sheet

This sheet describes the project study areas, and housing within these areas that is eligible to take part in LIPCAP community garden artefact surveys and archaeological building surveys; it also outlines how residents outside the study areas might participate in project activities, and in archaeological field surveys.

Satellite Images of Project Study Areas

These sheets provide satellite images of the four project study areas: Allestree Village; Little Chester; the West End; and Friar Gate.lxxviii

Handouts on ‘How to take part in LIPCAP Archaeological Activities’, and Expression of Interest handouts, are also made available.

Children’s Activities

Poppies Activity

Poppies Activity

Poppies

This activity comprised of artificial poppy petals, cut from crepe and coloured paper, for children to assemble in creating artificial poppies, fastened together with a pipe-cleaner, which formed the stalk of the flower.lxxix

Colouring Activity

Colouring Activity

Colouring Sheets

This activity comprised of A4 sheets, provided with outlines of a WWI Boy Scout and VAD nurse, for colouring in by children.lxxx

Acknowledgements

‘LIPCAP would like to thank’ Information Sheet

  • The Georgian House Hotel for very kindly providing the venue for this exhibition
  • Mr Grundy’s Tavern for providing information on the history of Mr Grundy, and a copy of the photograph of Mr Grundy in WWI uniform
  • Derby and Derbyshire War Memorial Project for their display and information on military service, and information and military issues
  • Derby Local Studies Library for granting permission to exhibit copies of newspaper extracts, all of which derive from the library archive, unless otherwise noted
  • The Derby Telegraph for granting permission to exhibit copies of extracts from the Derby Daily Telegraph, and for promoting the event, and printing a call for contributions of information
  • Derek Palmer for providing historic photographs, and permission to copy and exhibit copies (cited in the footnotes)
  • The Council for British Archaeology for supporting this exhibition as a 2014 Festival of Archaeology event
  • The Imperial War Museum for supporting this exhibition as a partner in the First World War Centenary commemorations, and providing WWI information posters

Volunteer Acknowledgements

(In order of time given to exhibition preparations)

Unless otherwise stated, the project director carried out administration and communications; preparatory research; sourced historical material and supplied exhibits; provided information and produced displays and handouts. Collaborative work is recorded in the endnotes and below: the project director is responsible for any remaining errors.

  • Stephen Leach for comments on exhibit preparation and presentation; photocopying, trimming, and distributing posters and flyers; printing display and information sheets, and handouts; transporting exhibits and displays, and assisting with setting up and dismantling the exhibition; and extensive general assistance and support.
  • Thomas Birch for comments on exhibit preparation and presentation, and assisting with exhibit and exhibition design; designing the exhibition poster, photography and printing; editing and printing the photographs from the DRI autograph book; designing, creating and printing the children’s colouring sheets (see endnotes); transporting exhibition material, and assisting with setting up and dismantling the exhibition; and substantial general assistance and support.
  • Louise Kinsley for comments on exhibit preparation and presentation; attending several home sessions to assist in costume conservation; organising, providing materials for, and supervising, the children’s poppies activity (see endnotes), and sourcing and preparing preliminary colouring sheets; helping with event promotion; assisting with setting up and dismantling the exhibition, and liaising with members of the public at the exhibition; and general assistance and support.
  • Sarah Kinsley for attending preparatory meetings; attending a local studies library session and assisting with photocopying in the of the OS 1914 map of the Ashbourne Road and Friar Gate area, and of written material; assisting in finds and landscape research, pdf file conversion and consolidation, and with preliminary exhibit and GIS map creation during work experience; helping with event promotion; assisting with setting up and dismantling the exhibition, and liaising with members of the public at the exhibition; and general assistance.
  • Thomas Debaere for attending the penultimate preparatory meeting; comments on exhibit presentation; liaising with Mr Grundy’s Tavern staff, and producing a display on Mr Grundy (see endnotes for display contribution); helping with event promotion; assisting with setting up and dismantling the exhibition, and liaising with members of the public at the exhibition.
  • Debra Jarrett for attending and providing secretarial support at preparatory meetings, and comments on exhibit presentation; attending a local studies library session and locating the report on the arrival of wounded soldiers in Derby, from the July 1915 editions of the Derby Mercury; arranging the loan of a set of display panels; helping with event promotion; assisting with transporting exhibition material, and setting up and dismantling the exhibition, and liaising with members of the public at the exhibition; and general support.
  • Alice Kinsley for attending several home sessions to assist in pdf file conversion, and general assistance.
  • Dave Kinsley for attending all preparatory meetings, and comments on exhibit presentation; printing initial flyers and posters; attending a local studies library session and home session to assist with preliminary war memorial family history research; and for helping with event promotion; and general support.
  • Cath Feely for attending the penultimate preparatory meeting, and comments on exhibit presentation; and general advice and support.

At Home in WWI Exhibition Guide Footnotes

i. Photograph and permission to display the image provided by Derek Palmer (hereafter cited as Derek Palmer Collection); see the acknowledgements section for further information.

ii. Family histories include those of the great uncle of Rich Clarke, and grandfather of Chris Preston, of the Derbys. War Memorial Project; see the acknowledgements section.

iii. The links provided show examples of these posters. Copies of posters for the exhibition were obtained from various outlets; examples labelled as IWM were provided freely by the Imperial War Museum, through the Centenary Partnership Scheme (hereafter cited as IWM), which supported LIPCAP in presenting this exhibition.

iv. IWM.

v. Photo: Derek Palmer Collection.

vi. Photo: project director’s collection; medal on loan from C Hall, with additional permission to exhibit obtained from P Jarrett.

vii. Provided by Mr Grundy’s Tavern.

viii. Information and digital photograph of Mr Grundy provided by Andrew Spencer, of Mr Grundy’s Tavern, written-up by Thomas Debaere, Derby University, who liaised with Mr Grundy’s Tavern, and interviewed Andrew Spencer. Advertisements from local newspapers: Derby Local Studies Library archive, displayed with permission of the library (hereafter cited as DLSL). Sources edited by the project director in producing the display.

ix. Information and digital copies of photographs provided by Chris Preston of the Derbyshire War Memorials Project. Edited by the project director and supplemented by further information; checked and proof-read by Chris Preston.

x. Information and digital photographs were provided by Rich Clarke of the Derbyshire War Memorials Project; information and images were edited by the project director in producing the display.

xi. Photo: Jarrett family collection.

xii. Photo: project director’s collection.

xiii. Photo: Derek Palmer Collection; newspaper clip: DLSL.

xiv. Ibid.

xv. Pendant supplied by C Hall; newspaper clip: DLSL.

xvi. Photo: Derek Palmer Collection.

xvii. Map: DLSL.

xviii. Photo: Derek Palmer Collection.

xix. Photo: project director’s collection.

xx. Photo: Derek Palmer Collection; newspaper clip: DLSL.

xxi. Memoir extract: Goodhead, E. 1983West End Story; photo: Derek Palmer Collection.

xxii. Photo: Derek Palmer Collection.

xxiii. Ibid.

xxiv. DLSL.

xxv. Ibid..

xxvi. Reproduction food tin labels obtained from various sources.

xxvii. DLSL.

xxviii. Ibid..

xxix. Photo: project director’s collection.

xxx. Ibid..

xxxi. Ibid..

xxxii. Goodhead, E. 1983West End Story; Photo: Derek Palmer Collection.

xxxiii. Photo: project director’s collection; newspaper clip: DLSL.

xxxiv. DLSL

xxxv. Ibid..

xxxvi. Ibid..

xxxvii. Ibid..

xxxviii. Goodhead, E. 1983West End Story; newspaper clips: DLSL.

xxxix. DLSL

xl. Ibid..

xli. Newspaper clips: DLSL, edited by the project director.

xlii. DLSL

xliii. Ibid..

xliv. Ibid..

xlv. Photo: Derek Palmer Collection; newspaper clip: DLSL.

xlvi. DLSL.

xlvii. Photo: project director, with permission of Little Chester Heritage Centre.

xlviii. Photo: IWM.

xlix. Artefact: Derek Palmer Collection; photo: project director, edited by Tom Birch. Newspaper clip: DLSL.

l. DLSL

li. Ibid..

lii. Ibid..

liii. Ibid..

liv. Ibid..

lv. Ibid..

lvi. Marwick, Arthur 1977Women at War, Fontana

lvii. DLSL

lviii. Ibid..

lix. Ibid..

lx. Photo: Derek Palmer Collection.

lxi. DLSL, edited by the project director.

lxii. IWM.

lxiii. DLSL

lxiv. Ibid..

lxv. Ibid..

lxvi. Ibid..

lxvii. Ibid..

lxviii. Ibid..

lxix. Ibid..

lxx. Ibid..

lxxi. Ibid..

lxxii. Ibid..

lxxiii. Ibid..

lxxiv. Clipart magnifying glass and measuring tape: Open Source.

lxxv. Clipart trowel: Open Source.

lxxvi. Ibid..

lxxvii. Photo: Derek Palmer Collection.

lxxviii. Images: Google Earth in Qgis.

lxxix. Activity originated by the project director; designed by Louise Kinsley, who also sourced, provided and prepared materials, and supervised public participation.

lxxx. Activity originated, and original images sourced, by the project director; colouring sheets designed, produced and printed by Tom Birch; public participation supervised by Louise Kinsley, who also supplied stationery.

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