Monthly Archives: December 2014

New Year Superstitions, Customs and Folktales from Victorian Derbyshire

Introduction

Following on from the post on Christmas Folklore, Superstitions, Carols and Customs from Victorian Derbyshire recorded by Sidney Oldall Addy within his late 19th century Household Tales and Traditional Remains, this post brings together extracts from this book relating superstitions, rituals and folktales for the New Year.[i]

In this book, Addy speculates as to the origin of some superstitions and folktales, suggesting in some cases (with little valid supporting evidence) continuity from the pre-Christian era – as was typical within many Victorian, and some early 20th century, works. Detailed philological, sociological, archaeological and historical, anthropological and ethnographic studies carried out during and after the late 20th century tend to indicate, in the absence of written records, the relatively short duration of social memories, limiting the length of time over which superstitions, traditions, and folktales continue unchanged.[ii] Many seemingly ‘ancient’ ritual practices, supernatural beliefs, and seasonal customs have a much later origin that might be supposed, mostly deriving from the post-medieval period, sometimes to quite recent years. The reader should therefore proceed with caution (and seek corroboration within more up to date research) before accepting claims made within early works of continuity from ‘pagan times’. Nonetheless, Household Tales provides and interesting account of superstitions remembered in the late 19th century, if not necessarily still practised at that time.

Although many of the traditions are from North Derbyshire (presented below in the Derbyshire New Year Superstitions, Traditions and Folktales section), Addy does not always record the provenance of customs; though perhaps it is safe to presume from the full title of the book that the information contained within is from either Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, Lincolnshire, or Yorkshire.[iii] These extracts appear below in the ‘Unprovenanced New Year superstitions and rituals’ section (though extrapolating from previous paragraphs in the book, some or all possibly derive from East Riding).

Household Tales relates fewer regional New Year traditions than those associated with Christmas, or with other times of the year. Some belong to both Christmas and New Year, such as the “wasselling” carol recorded in the preceding post: a regional version of ‘I Saw Three Ships”, about which Addy speculates that “The idea seems to have been that the New Year, like a child, came over the sea in a ship”.

There is some continuity of traditions into the present, with perhaps the most well known New Year custom of ‘first footing’. However, for North Derbyshire, this recorded as a Christmas practice, rather than a ritual carried out at the turn of the year (as also seen from the preceding post).

In general, New Year traditions in Britain consist of both ‘spells’ for girls and women wishing to prophesise their future husband (as is common with seasonal customs), as well as rituals intended to ensure good fortune for the year to come. New Year customs recorded in Household Tales as known at the end of the 19th century in Derbyshire include some divination ‘spells’, though most appear to be aimed at procuring ‘good luck’ in the New Year.

(Extracts are quoted verbatim, without using speech marks to denote Addy’s narration, and square brackets used for insertions by the author of this post.)

Derbyshire New Year Superstitions, Customs and Folktales

Customs

…a Derbyshire man puts a coin into the spout on New Year’s Eve and brings it into the house the minute after the clock has struck twelve at midnight…to make the coming year prosperous.

The Derbyshire man brings a [xxvi] coin into the house to make the new year prosperous. It may be that when he does this he is quite unconscious of what the ceremony means, and that he is merely repeating a formality whose meaning has long been forgotten. Still there once was a time when his ancestors practised the ceremony with a real and earnest purpose…

[The] bringing of a coin into the house at the dawn of the New Year was believed to be a means of ensuring the possession of money during that year…

…important as it was that the household should be possessed of money, it was more important that it should have enough of food and fire. It was therefore desirable that as the year came in some means [xxvii] should be devised whereby the possession of these good things would be secured.

…A similar rude process of reasoning goes on, or at least once went on, when a piece of money is put into the pocket of a new coat “for luck,” the idea being that the coin will have a magical influence over the coat, and that the prosperity thus begun will be continued.

One of the most interesting relics of paganism which I have had the good luck to discover is that which relates to the three Fates or Norns. In the section entitled “Two Pagan Hymns” [see following extract] mention will be found of three maids known as “the threble Timbers,” two of whom are “lily white,” and the third is dressed in green. These maids are described as living for evermore, and they are plainly the three Fates. The girls who set the table on New Year’s Eve with knives, forks, plates, and chairs for three guests, whom they expect to appear at the hour of midnight, are, without knowing it, spreading the table for the three Fates, though in the charm which they practise they expect their future husbands to appear. In the collection of superstitions condemned by Burchard, Bishop of Worms, who died in 1024, we are told that the German women of his time had the custom, at certain times of the year, of spreading tables in their houses with meat and drink, and laying three knives, that if the three sisters should come (whom Burchard interprets as being equivalent to the Roman Parcae) they might partake of their hospitality.[iv] Thus, in a Derbyshire village, at the end of the nineteenth century, we find this old superstition in full vigour, the only difference being that the future husbands of the women, instead of the Fates, are expected to appear.[v]

[“Two Pagan Hymns”:] On New Year’s Eve three unmarried girls may adopt the following plan in order to see the spirits of their future husbands. Let them go into a room which has two doors, and set the table with knives, forks, and plates for three guests, and let them wait in the room till twelve o’clock at midnight, at which hour exactly the spirits of their future husbands will come in at one door and go out at the other.[vi]

Let a girl take the stone out of a plum, throw the stone in the fire, and say these lines :

If he loves me crack and fly,

If he hates me burn and die.

Then let her mention the name of her sweetheart. If he loves her the stone will crack and fly out of the fire. If he does not love her it will quietly burn to ashes.

In Derbyshire “wassil” cakes are made on New Year’s Day. They are composed of flour, milk, and the first egg which a goose has laid. The cake is the same as that which is known as “speechless cake.”

…partaking of a mixed dish or cake as the new year comes in was believed to induce a sufficiency of food.

…in Derbyshire a species cake called “wassil cake,” [is] compounded in the same way as another cake well known in magic as “the speechless cake,” is made on New Year’s Day.

Folktales

About midnight on New Year’s Eve a man at Eckington, in Derbyshire, said that he saw a spectre in the shape of a wild white horse. The colliers in this neighbourhood say that they often see this white horse.

Unprovenanced New Year superstitions and rituals

On New Year’s Eve one should go out before midnight and bring a piece of coal, a broom, a shovel, or other article into the house. This should be done just as the old year is passing away and the new year coming in. A piece of money should also be put into the spout for luck, and taken into the house just when the new year is coming in.

On New Year’s Day unmarried girls melt lead and pour it into a bucket of water. It then assumes various shapes, such as a hammer, and from this they divine the trades or occupations of their future husbands.

It is unlucky to continue the knitting of a stocking into the new year. The stocking should be finished before the year closes, and the needle taken out. The needle must not be allowed to remain in the stocking until the beginning of the new year.

As the old year is passing away and the new year coming in cattle fall on their knees.

Whatever work you are doing when the new year comes in you will do a great deal of the same work during that year.

It is unlucky to come into your house with empty hands on New Year’s morning.

On New Year’s Day the “lucky bird” came again and received the usual present. Then the boys of the family received presents, and after them the girls.

The first person who comes into a house on New Year’s morning must have black hair. Sometimes boys with dark hair are picked for the purpose of being the first to enter the house on New Year’s morning.

lg-welcome-in-the-new-year

We hope that readers have enjoyed these extracts from Household Tales, and will return in spring 2015 with Victorian folklore and superstitions from Derbyshire associated with topics such as fairies and Morris Dancing!

LIPCAP wishes readers:

1293933880392931 nyr 6

Notes

[i] Household Tales and Traditional Remains. Collected in the Counties of York, Lincoln, Derby, and Nottingham, published 1895.

[ii] For example, a useful and interesting work that considers the transmission and transformation of folktales is James Fentress’ and Chris Wickham’s 1992 Social Memory. See also ‘Telling tales? Myth, memory, and Crickley Hill’, by the author of this post, in Memory, Myth and Long-Term Landscape Inhabitation, Adrian M. Chadwick and Catriona D. Gibson (eds.), 2013, for a recent discussion of long-term cultural memory.

[iii] See endnote i.

[iv] The footnote of the text records “ “Wright’s Celt, Roman, and Saxon, 4th ed., p. 340. Burchard’s words are: ” Fecisti ut quaedam mulieres in quibusdam temporibus anni facere solent, ut in domo sua mensam praeparares et tuos cibos et potum cum tribus cultellis supra mensam poneres, ut si venissent tres illae sorores, quas antiqua posteritas et antiqua stuititia Parcas nominavit, ibi reficerentur.” ”

[v] Abby notes that [xxx] “In the Nornagests Saga we are told that there travelled about in the land völvur, who are called spákonur, who foretold to men their fate. People invited them to their houses and gave [Xxxi] them good cheer and gifts. These beings are identical with the Norns.” The accompanying footnote records the source of this myth as Grimm’s Teutonic Myth, trans. Stallybrass, p. 409.

[vi] Abby notes “The three guests are the three Parcae, or Fates”. For the source, as recorded in the footnote of the text, see Grimm (trans. Stallybrass), op. cit., p. 1746.

Victorian Derbyshire Christmas Folklore, Superstitions, Customs and Carols

For Christmas, I’ve brought together Christmas folk tales, superstitions rituals and carols, from Derbyshire, and some recorded by Addy that were known in, and may in some cases derive from, North Derbyshire.

The following are from a late 19th century collection by Sidney Oldall Addy: Household Tales and Traditional Remains.[i] The extracts are presented below as emphasised text, to differentiate from background information. With the exception of a few short comments I make (which are italicised, and within the endnotes), the text is quoted verbatim, with speech marks only used where Addy cites informants and other works.

christmasdesigns

Non-localised Christmas superstitions and rituals

Addy records a number of superstitions and customs (some of which have survived into this 20th century), and ritual practices (sometimes referred to as ‘spells’) without attributing the locality of derivation, suggesting that they belong to a more widespread canon of belief – and perhaps indicating transmission (and fossilisation) through literacy.[ii] Some may relate to the localities mentioned by Addy in preceding paragraphs, although this is unclear (the possible derivations are recorded here in endnotes). As is typical for other seasons (see the previous post on Derbyshire Halloween traditions and folklore on a sister website, Underworld Archaeology), the ‘spells’ are predominantly aimed at girls and women wishing to prophesize their future husband.

Christmas ritual practices

On Christmas Eve unmarried girls lay a white sheet over a chair before the fire, and leave it there all night. In the morning if a spear is found reared against it the girl’s husband will be a soldier ; if a sickle, he will be a farmer, and so on.

If a girl walks backwards to a pear tree on Christmas Eve, and walk round it three times, she will see the spirit or image of the man who is to be her husband.

Christmas superstitions and customs

If you meet with a good log of wood you should preserve it for the Christmas fire.[iii]

If a dog howls on Christmas Eve he will go mad in the following year.[iv]

If a woman goes out of the house on Christmas Eve she must return before midnight.[v]

It is unlucky for a light haired or a red-haired man to “let in” Christmas.[vi]

A candle or lamp should be left burning all night on Christmas Eve. Unless this is done there will be a death in the house.

Ale posset must be the last thing that you drink on Christmas Eve, and frummity the first thing that you eat on Christmas morning.[vii]

On Christmas Eve, or the morning of Christmas Day, you should give a sheaf of oats to every horse, cow, or other beast about your farmhouse.[viii]

If the sun shines brightly on your apple trees on the morning of Christmas Day you will have a good crop of apples next year.[ix]

If you refuse a mince-pie at Christmas you will be unlucky during the following year. As many mince-pies as you eat between Christmas Day and the new year so many happy months will you have.

Evergreens brought into the house before Christmas should not be taken out of the house until Christmas is over, or until Twelfth Day.[x]

If you hang clothes out to dry on Old Christmas Day (January 12) you will be laid in your grave in some of those clothes before the year is out.[xi]

On Candlemas Day Christmas decorations should be burnt.[xii]

Christmas Superstitions in Derbyshire

In Derbyshire it is said that if the yule log is not burnt away on Christmas Eve the ashes or embers must on no account be taken out of the house.

No fire must on any account be taken out of the house between Christmas Eve and New Year’s Eve.

In the north of Derbyshire, and also in Sheffield, it is a very common practice to ask some dark-haired man to come into the house on the morning of Christmas Day before any other person has entered. The same man will often “let in” Christmas for a number of families, calling at their houses early in the morning. He usually walks in at the front door and goes out at the back door. In many houses the custom is very strictly maintained.

This tradition compares with the custom of ‘first footing’, more commonly associated with New Year.

Derbyshire Folk Tales

The Man That Stole the Parson’s Sheep (Calver, in Derbyshire)

There was once a man who used to steal a fat sheep every Christmas. One Christmas he stole the parson’s sheep, and his son, a lad about twelve years old, went about the village singing

My father’s stolen the parson’s sheep,

And a merry Christmas we shall keep,

We shall have both pudding and meat,

But you meant say nought about it.

Now it happened one day that the parson himself heard the boy singing these words, so he said, ” My lad, you sing very well ; will you come to church next Sunday evening and sing it there ? “

” I’ve no clothes to go in/’ said the boy. But the parson said, ” If you will come to church as I ask you, I will buy you clothes to go in.” So the boy went to church the next Sunday evening, dressed in the new clothes that the parson had given him.

When the service was over the parson said to the people, ” Stay, my brethren, I want you to hear what this boy has to sing, it’s gospel truth that he’ll tell you,” for he was hoping that the boy would confess before all the people that his father had stolen the sheep. But the boy got up and sang

As I was in the field one day

I saw the parson kiss a may ;[xiii]

He gave me a shilling not to tell,

And these new clothes do fit me well.

At Bradwell, in the Peak of Derbyshire, once lived a man known as Master John, who was reported to be a wise man, and whose advice was sought by all the people in the village.

It is said that the ghost of a child who had been murdered in the village could not be appeased, and so the aid of Master John was invoked. Master John pronounced the words:

“In the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, why troublest thou me” and turned the ghost of the child into a large fish.

This fish used to appear, it is said, at a place called the Lum [61] Mouth, and also at Lumley Pool, in Bradwell, on Christmas Day to people who fetched water from the wells there.

When anybody saw the ghost in the form of a fish he would run away, screaming cc the fish, the fish.”[xiv]

 Derbyshire Carols

The following carol is sung on Christmas Day and New Year’s Day in the neighbourhood of Sheffield. It is called:

JOLLY WESSEL BOUGH (BOO).

Girls. Our jolly wessel,

Love and joy come to you,

And to our wessel bough (boo) ;

Pray God send you

A happy new year,

A new year, a new year.

We’ve been a while a-wandering

Amongst the leaves and greaves,[xv]

And now we come a- wesseling,

So plainly to be seen.

Boys. God bless the master of this house,

And the mistress also,

Likewise the little children

That round the table go.

I wish you a merry Christmas

And a happy new year,

A pocket full of money,

And a cellar full of beer,

At Eckington, in Derbyshire, a village about eight miles from Sheffield, the children carry a doll in a box when they go round singing this carol.

In Eckington another hymn or carol[xvi] is sung by children on Christmas Eve, the words and tune being as follows :

3 ships

This carol is of course familiar to many today, although the melody and lyrics differ to those of the ‘traditional’ version most commonly sung in the 20th and 21st centuries. The 1929 ed. of The Oxford Book of Carols (ed. Percy Dearmer, R. Vaughn Williams and Martin Shaw) records that the ‘traditional’ version recorded in that edition “(in Sandys, 1833 ) differs only in v. 3 from the Derbyshire version with our first tune in Bramley & Stainer, Christmas Carols New and Old , 1871” 

About Dronfield, in Derbyshire, they sing at Christmas the carol beginning :

The first good joy that Mary had it was the joy of one

To see her own son Jesus suck at her breast-bone ;

It brings tidings of comfort and joy.[xvii]

holly bunch

The tradition of regional carols continues in the pubs of North Derbyshire today; several recordings can be seen on Youtube, which last year I collated as a playlist, available here.

I hope to return to Derbyshire customs recorded by Addy for the New Year

ivy R

Notes

[i] Household Tales and Traditional Remains. Collected in the Counties of York, Lincoln, Derby, and Nottingham, published 1895.

[ii] Discussion of the origins of Christmas traditions and customs celebrated and practiced at the national and international scale will be left to the numerous texts on this topic.

[iii] Possibly Nottinghamshire

[iv] Possibly from East Riding

[v] Ibid.

[vi] Ibid.

[vii] Possibly from South Yorkshire

[viii] Possibly from East Riding

[ix] Possibly from Derbyshire

[x] Possibly from East Riding

[xi] Ibid.

[xii] Possibly from Sheffield

[xiii] Addy states “Maid. O. N. mar, ace. mcy.”

[xiv] Addy suggests “Compare Wood’s Tales and Traditions of the High Peak, 1862, p. 183.”

[xv] Addy notes “Old English graft’, a greave, or grove. The version here printed was written down by me on Christmas Day, 1890.”

[xvi] Addy comments: “It seems probable that the singer of this carol formerly carried a box containing the figure of a child. This is called the “bessel cup” “.

[xvii] According to Addy “The words of the carol are the same as those given in Brand’s Popular Antiquities, ed. 1849, i. 454. In singing the carol the last line of each stanza is repeated several times. The “vessel cup,” is not carried about in Dronfield, but it is carried about in the village of Handsworth, near Sheffield. Taking the whole evidence together, it seems to me that the “box,” “milly box,” “bessel cup,” or ” vessel cup,” represents the image of a vessel or ship in which an effigy of the boy Sceaf (afterwards changed to Jesus) was carried about as a representation of the birth of the year. Vessel, or vessel, in the sense of ship, is at least as old as Chaucer’s time. The idea seems to have been that the New Year, like a child, came over the sea in a ship.”

LIPCAP 2014 1930s House Open Day

LIPCAP Xmas Open Day 2014
Last year, one member of the Living in the Past Community Archaeology Project (LIPCAP) team held a Christmas open day by inviting members of the public to view her home: a house built in the late 1920s – early 1930s, which is dressed for Christmas with vintage decorations. Photos from the 2013 1930s House Xmas Open Day are displayed here.
Over the last four years, the layers of wallpaper, paint, and floor coverings of more recent decades have been removed to reveal original décor and fittings, which the project director is archaeologically investigating and recording (some information on the findings is available on another blog – under ‘Lymehurst’). These early features are being restored, and period fittings and furnishing reinstated,  in order to gain an impression of the domestic environment in the inter-war years. The restoration (which is still a work in progress) provides a backdrop to display early – mid 20th century artefacts, as well as Christmas decorations of this date.
Though most visitors today might find the décor far from ‘tasteful’, it is proving a useful exercise to experience such an environment. (The interior of this ‘cottage-type’ house differs in many ways to the ‘moderne’ interior of the time. Whereas many find what is now commonly described as ‘Art Deco’ styles attractive – of which we’re familiar through period dramas such as ITV’s Poirot – the materials, dark colours, and ‘traditional’ styles that filled many homes at the time are generally seen today as undesirable, making the more ‘homely’ furniture, furnishings and other household objects – which now fill Lymehurst – is now commonly categorised as worthless junk.).
We are holding another Xmas Open Day this year, on Sunday 21st December, 2-4pm, giving visitors to the house the opportunity to step back in time to Christmases of yesteryear. Changes since last year include reinstatement of paintwork in the hall and old kitchen.
We would especially welcome elderly visitors that were children in the 1920s and 30s, to hear their memories of housing and Christmastime before WWII.

Disabled Access

Although as a private house there are no facilities fitted for disabled visitors, we will endeavour to provide access where possible. There is a single step into the building; the open day is limited to ground floor rooms (where restoration is most complete), which with the exception of a door-mat well, is level (with removable door treads).
It may be possible for elderly or other visitors with disabilities to visit the house at times other than those advertised for public access: please contact the project for further information. See below for parking information

Directions

 map red dot
Location: red dot (Google Maps)

Signs & satnavs

If using a Satnav, be aware that they tend to get confused by the different sections of Newton’s Walk, and often try to send cars along the foot-path at the back of Markeaton School!
The old signs to Broadway church lead to West Park Road, although there is no longer access to the church.

From Kedleston Road:

Turn into the Broadway (junction near to the Jonty Farmer pub), taking the immediate right into old Kedleston Road, then 2nd left into Cedar St. Continue straight on over the crossroads, into Woodland Road. The first left turn is West Park Road; no. 1 is on the left hand corner with Woodland Road.

From Duffield Road:

Turn into Broadway at the Broadway pub roundabout on Duffield Road, and continue down the road until the bottom of the hill; take the second left into Sherwin St. (just before the junction with Kedleston Road), continuing to the top of the road, following the road around right at the WI into Newton’s Walk, then first right into Woodland Road. The first left turn is West Park Road; no. 1 is on the left hand corner with Woodland Road.

Parking

There is only very limited parking near to the house, restricted to residents with permits. The house may be reached by a short walk along the footpath (Newton’s Walk, next to the pedestrian crossing on Broadway, near to the Baptist Church, marked in grey on the map above). Should a visitor with disabilities need to park near to the house, please contact the project, and we will try to organise access to an off-road parking-space next to the house.
Please do not park in the church car park without prior permission: it is not a public car park.

Posters

Event posters (jpg at top of page and pdf below) can be downloaded by right-clicking on the image & selecting ‘Save As’

LIPCAP Xmas Open Day 2014

In at the Ground Floor: Exploring a 17th Century Home in South Derbyshire

Introduction

In this post (the second post in a series that considers everyday life in Early Modern England[i] through ‘archaeological stories’ that places historical evidence within a fictional narrative: see ‘Expedition into the Past: Tales of a 17th Century Derbyshire Manor House’ for a brief explanation of this approach),[ii] we continue to follow Samuel Beighton. This Constable[iii] is investigating ‘Upper Hall’ (a privately occupied dwelling in the Swadlincote area of South Derbyshire),[iv] in order to verify the number of chargeable fireplaces for the first Hearth Tax assessment, in September 1662.[v]

This post continues from ‘The Taxman Cometh: Exploring a 17th Century South Derbyshire Home’, in which Samuels examines the setting and front façade of the manor House. The real-life characters encountered within these posts are discussed (alongside other occupants and events connected with the house) in ‘From Yeoman to Gentleman: Peopling a 17th Century South Derbyshire Manor House’, which includes tentative ‘family histories’ to consider social relationships within and between the Hall and the wider community. ‘Living in the Early Modern Past: the 17th Century Home’ outlines the domestic environment and material culture of the typical yeoman household at this time, providing a backdrop and comparisons for the society and culture of Upper Hall. ‘Expedition into the Past’ provides background information, and discusses how this series uses written and materials sources to create a historically descriptive, but imaginary, tale. (Please see the endnotes for information on the sources used, and on the introduction of fictional characters and circumstances. Italicised text is used to denote discussion of later and features, and to present background information, outside the main narrative.)

Constable Beighton resumes his investigations as one of the servants reluctantly admits him into the property through the porch: he now stands within the entrance hall.

Entrance Hall

The constable looks about him as the servant hesitates over where she should first conduct the officious intruder. Muffled voices permeate a closed oak door to the right, which intrigue Beighton, though this room appears not to be their destination. Samuel can just see stairs to another floor through the opening in the wattle panels in front of him. Through another oaken door to the left, he glimpses what must be the kitchen.

Parlour-Dining Room

Though not visible to Samuel at this time, visitors in later years would have encountered a door to the left of that which led to the kitchen, which opened into an extension built in the late 18th or early 19th century, to the north of the porch. Its construction therefore postdates Beighton’s assessment of 1662, and the repeal of the hearth tax in the 1680s.

It will be seen below (in the section on the Hall) that the house has at several times been subdivided; this extension was most likely built as a parlour-dining room, after the south wing – and its dining room and parlour – was separated from the rest of the house. This modification appears to have been carried out in or after the late Georgian period (by which time the Benskin family had vacated the property), perhaps by the grandson of the third owner (William Cant), William Bailey (or ‘Bayley’) Cant (see ‘From Yeoman to Gentleman).  

The room is fitted with a fine (original?) late 18th – early 19th century style fire surround (perhaps made of what in the past was commonly called ‘deal’). Within the fireplace is a late 19th – 20th century cast iron combination grate, with transfer-printed ceramic tiles. The ceramic hearth tiles appear to be relatively recent additions, perhaps set on top of an earlier hearth-stone (possibly raising the level of the fireplace floor, in order to comply with modern building regulations for fitting a gas fire within the grate). To the right of the chimneybreast is an arched alcove (which may have once contained a carved wooden or plaster back), within which expensive possessions may have been displayed.

Fireplace in late 18th - early 19th century parlour-dining room

Fireplace in late 18th – early 19th century parlour-dining room

The room would most likely have contained a central mahogany dining table (perhaps of gate-leg design, so that it might be folded and placed against the wall when not in use), with upholstered and carved mahogany dining chairs, and perhaps a small mahogany sideboard.

For more information on, and descriptions of late 17th – 19th century parlour-dining rooms, see ‘Living in the Early Modern Past’; and the Geffrye Museum virtual display.

Here the servant-girl suddenly leaves Samuel, as a male servant approaches through the kitchen door to take her place, and grudgingly bids the constable to follow.

Kitchen and Cellars

Kitchen, viewed through hallway door

Kitchen, viewed through hallway door

Samuel is impressed by the modern and well-equipped kitchen, which has not one, but two, bread ovens (see ‘Living in the Early Modern Past’) within the brick inglenook fireplace – no sending victuals out to the village baker, as the less fortunate must do. One of the arched openings bears sooty traces from the flames and smoke of a previous fire.

The following is a description of the possible arrangements for the kitchen hearth at the time of the first Hearth Tax assessment. Inglenook fireplaces were built to contain open grate wood fires, whereas the central brick feature (enclosing a narrow flue) now visible was likely to have been inserted at a later date to burn coal (late 17th – late 18th century: closer examination might enable a more accurate estimate of the most likely date when this modification took place). Bricked in flues could more efficiently (and with less smoke, and fewer noxious fumes) burn fossil fuels; prior to this change, chimney flues were chamfered.[vi]  

The ashes from the fire (saved for cleaning purposes) part fill a deep brick-lined grate-covered pit (perhaps 2’ square) set in brick floor in front of the fireplace.[vii] A young boy brings in faggots from outdoors, in readiness for baking, and wood to keep the main fire alive, and eyes the constable warily, as the other servant departs – perhaps to consult with the master of the house.

Bread ovens within brick and stone inglenook fireplace

Bread ovens within brick and stone inglenook fireplace

Samuel takes this opportunity to look around the room. Like the treads of the stairs that he saw in the hallway, the massive oak lintel of the inglenook is a reminder of the substantial rooms above. The fireplace is conveniently equipped with side niches, which provide a dry place for the saltbox and sugar loaf between use, away from vermin that might have escaped the attention of the house cat.

Inglenook niche (right). Note pale blue distemper on the stone base of the bread oven (within which faggots have been laid)

Logs burn upon iron firedogs (see ‘Living in the Early Modern Past’) in the hearth; Mistress Benskin prefers to keep the blaze perpetually alight, for what seems to be a continuous round of cooking. (As the wife of a prosperous farmer, she has as much fuel as she might need – which is a good thing, considering the frustration that both she and the kitchen maid find in using the tinderbox to re-light an extinguished flame.)

Through his assessments of the tax, Beighton has noticed that some (albeit mainly the landowning gentry) have begun to burn locally mined coal within their homes, in place of wood. He suspects that this well-off household will soon make this change: he has seen grates adapted for this purpose by the placement of iron bars between the dogs (see ‘Living in the Early Modern Past’). With coalmines only a few miles away, transportation costs should not prohibit the use of this new fuel (which is often the case for even ‘middling’ families in other areas).

As Samuel hears the servant returning, his gaze quickly casts around the room, excepting the occasional trace, no lime-wash covers the walls, as is customary (though servants usually perform this task in spring, perhaps they have scrubbed them in readiness to receive a fresh coat).

A patch of pale blue tinted lime-wash is evident on the stone base of the right bread oven (see photo above). Blue was often added to whitewash on kitchen, pantry, cupboard interiors, external yard and passageway walls, and privy walls, and any other place where hygiene was particularly required (including the walls of children’s bedrooms) in the Victorian or Edwardian periods. This finish was thought to repel flies (though this belief had no basis in fact); for further examples of this finish, see posts on ‘No. 8’ – a later 19th century terrace house in Derby that was also examined by LIPCAP.

The room is simply furnished, with table, chair, benches and stool, a meat safe on the wall, and equipment suspended from the walls and hearth (see ‘Living in the Early Modern Past’ for a description of 17th century kitchen furnishings).

Cellar stairs

Cellar stairs

A kitchen maid accompanies the returning man; he motions to the constable to follow her as she moves towards a door leading from the kitchen. As she opens the door, Beighton sees a flight of stairs, down which he follows his young guide.

Stone mullion window in cellar

Stone mullion window in cellar

As Samuel descends, a breeze stirs the cool air, streaming in through an open window. On reaching the bottom of the steps, an unglazed stone mullion becomes visible (expensive glass would be wasted in these out-of-sight cellars). Though windows are barred to intruders, this precaution has clearly proved no obstacle to this unwelcome visitor.

Cellar room with brick thralls, showing brick-vaulted ceiling, and ceramic floor tiles of probable 18th century date

Cellar room with brick thralls, showing brick-vaulted ceiling, and ceramic floor tiles of probable 18th century date

Brick walls divide the cellar into barrel-vaulted rooms, the size of the bricks suggesting later insertions and extensions (built during or after the 19th century). In places, these walls top earlier brick courses. The size of the bricks used for the extant thralls suggests a later date (late 18th – 19th century) for these features.

Brick and stone cellar floor, indicating different phases of construction (17th century, with 19th - early 20th century modifications)

Brick and stone cellar floor, indicating different phases of construction (17th century, with 19th – early 20th century modifications)

The floors are paved with stone flags, and patches of early (17th – mid 18th century) and later (19th century onwards) bricks and ceramic tiles. The walls have at some point been lime-washed, the colour reflecting the limited light, and lime content of the wash acting as a disinfectant.

Cellar room, showing stone walling, and different phases of brick construction

Cellar room, showing stone walling, and different phases of brick construction

The serving girl continues to fulfil her charge from Mistress Benskin, and goes to fetch milk. She picks up a glazed yellow earthenware jug, made locally at Ticknall, which sits on the thrall (platform on which food, particularly dairy produce, was kept chilled) besides a large, wide, shallow, red earthenware bowl. The shiny black glaze that lines this pan can just be seen above the cream it contains.[viii]

(See ‘Living in the Early Modern Past for more information on 17th century material culture and practices associated with the home dairy.)

Black-glazed coarse red earthenware sherds - from (a) possible milk pan(s) and / or bowls - found in the topsoil of Upper Hall garden

Black-glazed coarse red earthenware sherds – from (a) possible milk pan(s) and / or bowls – found in the topsoil of Upper Hall garden

Though finding no hearths, Samuel can see that food is processed as well as stored in these rooms. Through an open door, a large stone salting trough is visible, in which a flitch of bacon is partway through the curing processes, in preparation for the rapidly approaching cold winter months.

(See ‘Living in the Early Modern Past’ for information on 17th century material culture and practices relating to meat preservation.)

Salting trough, in cellar room, above brick thralls

Salting trough, in cellar room, above brick thralls

This use of cellar space for household chores continues over the centuries, as land for housing becomes more precious: dwellings not only rise in height, but sink in depth, condemning many domestic servants – particularly young girls and boys, and women – to a largely subterranean life well into the 20th century, in the basements of middle-class households.

After responding affirmatively to the enquiry of the maid as to whether she could show him back to the house, Samuel follows her up the steps, which are (as with the other stairs) made of thick oak blocks. Rising from the dim underbelly of Upper Hall, he returns to the heat and light of the kitchen.

Cellar stairs to kitchen 

Cellar stairs to kitchen

By this time, the women have begun to prepare the next meal. Samuel’s mouth waters at the smell of roasting mutton (was it reared on Benskin lands?) and fresh thyme (likely picked from the garden). The serving girl takes over turning the spit from the weary pink-faced boy – an increasingly automated task in wealthier households by use of a mechanical spit jack. As the spit scrapes upon a wrought iron andiron, Mistress Maria pours claret from a squat bottle into a large bowl, into which she then grates nutmeg (using a recipe of the day for those sufficiently wealthy to afford meat. A bell-metal cauldron of bubbling pottage gently swings on the wrought iron trammel hook that suspends the vessel over the flames.

(For illustrations and more information on the above-mentioned kitchen objects, see ‘Living in the Early Modern Past’.)

Beneath this array of aromas, the tang of vinegar and rosemary is just perceptible. Eliza had earlier scrubbed the ash kitchen table – with some success; the Master and Mistress have spoken together of her progress – though not yet 9 years old, she is coming on as a maid.

Master John has distant childhood memories of his grandfather John – whose son John (the current Master’s father) built the house (see ‘From Yeoman to Gentleman’) – talking of a maid bearing the same name, who served his family in the previous century. Long gone, she has lain buried in the nearby church since 1602 (though not being of the gentry, her grave has no marker) (see ‘From Yeoman to Gentleman’). The couple hope that this young girl will prove as faithful as her namesake, for she is almost one of the family, having been part of the household for over a year now.[ix]

Handle of a coarse earthenware jug, of 14th – 17th century date, found in the topsoil of Upper Hall garden. There are possibly slight traces of yellow glaze (which might be clarified by closer examination); if certainly evident, this would suggest local manufacture in the 17th century.

Sherds from possible contemporary ceramics found within the garden of Upper Hall will be examined in more detail in a subsequent post.

PANTRY AND SCULLERY?

Samuel makes a note of the kitchen hearth, before the man who previously accompanied led him out of the room. The men pass a small room – or large cupboard, to the right of the kitchen; he can see through the door that no hearth lies within. This is perhaps a pantry, providing storage for precious ingredients that were more susceptible to damp (and more expensive), such as spices imported from foreign lands thanks to expanding trade networks.

Beyond is another small room, possibly a scullery for preparing food, and for other dirty household chores. Samuel can see no soft water cistern (often a T-shaped feature in stone), and supposes that water is fetched from a well in the yard outside.

(See ‘Living in the Early Modern Past’ for a description of 17th century pantry and scullery material culture.)

Early occupants would have to wait nearly three centuries for an indoor running water supply (though a washhouse is later built in the yard: see the forthcoming post ‘Out Back: Exploring a 17th Century Home in South Derbyshire’).

As the men move towards another closed door ahead of them, the suppressed clamour of children emanates from beyond; this is a familiar sound – perhaps the same he encountered earlier through another door, when first entering into the hall. The room hence is perhaps large, spanning the width of the house; Samuel consequently suspects that he is about to enter the hub of the house: the Hall.

The Hall

The Benskin family are gathered in the Hall, and eye Beighton as he enters the room. Sitting by the fire in an upholstered high-backed chair is the Master, Johannis (John)  a man of 62 years, referred to as ‘old’ John, to differentiate from his younger son who is in his early 30s; beside him sits his wife Maria, on a similar chair.

This is before the time of sofas and settees, which did not become fashionable within middle class homes until the end of the following century. In the mid 17th century, few common folk would have an upholstered chair, and often had to make use of a plain wooden stool or bench.

The Mater and Mistress have several children: two sadly died in infancy (as is commonplace – even within affluent households such as this), though seven have survived into adulthood, and have homes and families of their own. They also have many grandchildren, some of whom join them today, seated on stools about the room.

(See ‘Living in the Early Modern Past for information on derivation of, and material culture associated with, the 17th century hall; and ‘From Yeoman to Gentleman’ for further information on the family.)

Hall Fireplace

Hall Fireplace

A fireplace of large stone blocks, and lined with the small bricks of the period, almost fills one wall of the room. It inevitably captures the constable’s attention, and he makes a note of it for his assessment. Burning logs that rest upon a cupped andiron warm the room; the cast iron back-plate (designed to reflect the heat forwards) is decorated, though soot and ash obscure the image. Beside the fire is an inverted earthenware bowl – of a type known as a curfew – which a servant will place over the flames when the family later retire to bed. In this way, the wood will continue smouldering overnight in relative safety (and thus avoid the need to re-light the fire in the morning).

Cup-iron dog-grate, with ceramic curfew (to the left of the grate)

Cup-iron dog-grate, with ceramic curfew (to the left of the grate)

Larger bricks, most likely manufactured in nearby Measham, line the back of the hearth; these are later insertions (known by some as Gob, or Jumb, bricks), made in the late 18th – early 19th centuries.[x] Between 1784 and 1803, Joseph Wilkes made these bricks twice the usual size (up to 11” × 5 “ × 3 1⁄2 “ / 280 mm × 125 mm × 80 mm, reduced in 1801 to 10” x 5” x 3” , prior to firing, which usually led to substantial shrinkage), in order to limit liability for the new brick taxation.[xi] This charge was imposed by George III in an attempt to reduce the debt incurred by the failed American war of 1776-83.[xii] Although builders required fewer of these new style bricks than they had for the previously smaller bricks, the manufacturer aimed to maintain a profit by charging higher for the larger bricks; however, loses were made through the charge being set prior to firing – a process liable to include failures.[xiii] The tax was initially levied at 2s 6d per thousand bricks, but was increased in 1794, 1797, and 1805, ultimately reaching 5s 10d; it was not repealed until the middle of the 19th century.[xiv]

South wall of the Hall: location of blocked doors either side of the fireplace

South wall of the Hall: location of blocked doors either side of the fireplace

On either side of the fireplace would have been two doors (now blocked), leading to the parlours, in the southern wing of the house, which can be seen in the photo of the back of the building, below. This part of the house now forms the neighbouring property, to which the author has not had access. The following therefore provides only a description of features commonly encountered within the rooms that would have lay beyond these doors in the later 17th century.

North wall of the Hall, showing location of blocked doors either side of the central panel

North wall of the Hall, showing location of blocked doors either side of the central panel

Dining Parlour

The door to the left of the fireplace led to the Dining Parlour, within which Beighton would have found a further hearth. It would have been lined with oak panels, which were often painted during and after the late 17th century. The room would have contained an oak table, which may have had folding leafs to allow storage against the wall when not in use, and chairs (perhaps caned or upholstered), and an oak sideboard (see ‘Living in the Early Modern Past’) and perhaps a corner cupboard (which were often wall-mounted). In subsequent decades, mahogany often replaced oak in wealthy homes.

Although Chinese porcelain may have been used (or displayed) in particularly prosperous times, blue-tinted and polychromatic tin-glazed earthenware (imitative ‘Delftware’, imported from Holland, or English-made imitations, imported from Bristol, Liverpool or London) was more probably used, alongside locally produced wares. Glazed and slip-decorated wares were made at potteries located only a few miles away (nearby Ticknall was a significant production centre, and wares manufactured in and around Swadlincote (such as by TG Green and Sharpe’s) gained in prominence over the following centuries).[xv] Decorative wares may have been increasingly imported from Staffordshire potteries, made easier during the late 18th century with the development of the canal system. (With fewer breakages in transit reducing costs, the market expanded for regionally produced wares.) 

Artefacts found within the garden topsoil of Upper Hall, showing some of the material culture used by the occupants, will be considered in a later post. For more information on the fixtures and fittings and other material culture (such as dining sets) that might have been used within these rooms, see ‘Living in the Early Modern Past’.

Sherds of locally made slip-decorated ‘yellow’ earthenware, found in the topsoil of Upper Hall

Sherds of locally made slip-decorated ‘yellow’ earthenware, found in the topsoil of Upper Hall

Parlour

The parlour, in the early 17th century, often referred to as the ‘Hall’, would have been the best appointed in the house, and only used by the family and special guests. It would have had a timber floor, perhaps covered with a woven wool carpet, or rush mat, and may have in later years been dry lined with lathe and plaster, and perhaps wallpapered, and fitted with a plaster or painted wood cornice.

Samuel Beighton would have found another fireplace to add to his list. Mistress Benskin may have displayed her most treasured possessions within cupboards in the alcoves at either side of the chimney, or within a corner cupboard. The windows, facing on to the road, may have been fitted with shutters, for warmth and privacy.

The room perhaps contained a small table, and several chairs, where of an evening the Master and Mistress, and perhaps the occasional close friend, passed their leisure time in polite conversation, or playing a fashionable card game, away from less refined company. Master Benskin and his sons may have smoked tobacco in their clay pipes (sherds of which have been found within Upper Hall gardens: see above) within this room – or perhaps, deemed offensive to ladies, this pursuit was restricted to the dining room after meals. 

Clay tobacco pipe bowls of 17th – 18th century date, found within the garden of Upper Hall

Clay tobacco pipe bowls of 17th – 18th century date, found within the garden of Upper Hall

For more information on, and descriptions of, late 17th – 19th century parlour-dining rooms, see ‘Living in the Early Modern Past’; and the Geffrye Museum virtual display.

The light is fading fast, and soon the household must retire to bed. The constable is ushered out of the door (not permitted by law to continue his search after dark), but will return tomorrow to explore the floors above…

Next: ‘Onwards and Upwards: Exploring a 17th Century Home in South Derbyshire

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Notes

[i] This series of posts use the common definition of the Early Modern period in Britain as covering the mid 16th to mid 18th centuries; see the endnotes of ‘Expedition into the Past: Tales of a 17th Century Derbyshire Manor House’ for a brief discussion of the term, and of categorising historical periods.

[ii] For a brief discussion of the archaeological story-telling approach, see ‘Expedition into the Past‘.

[iii] For more information on the 17th century Petty Constable, see ‘The Taxman Cometh: Exploring a 17th Century South Derbyshire Home‘.

[iv] In order to retain the privacy of the occupants of this house, the full address of Upper Hall is withheld.

[v] Samuel Beighton is named as the constable responsible for assessing the in the Hearth Tax returns (see an online transcription of the 1662 Hearth Tax return for the village). For more information on the Hearth Tax, see Hearth Tax Online.

[vi] Philip Heath, ‘Farmhouses and Cottages, Derbyshire’, Derbyshire Archaeological Society Talk, 20 March 2014.

[vii]  The hearth pit was a common feature during this period, although fitted carpet now covers the floor within this building; it is at this stage therefore uncertain whether this fireplace has this feature (ibid.).

[viii] For example, see Janet Spavold and Sue Brown (2005) Ticknall Pots & Potters from the Late Fifteenth Century to 1888.

[ix] This character is fictional, introduced in order to consider the role of servants at this time.

[x] With thanks to the owner of the property for highlighting the presence of Measham bricks.

[xi] See e.g. Robin Lucas (1997) ‘The Tax on Bricks and Tiles, 1784-1850: its Application to the Country at large and, in particular, to the County of Norfolk’, Construction History Vol. 13, pp. 29-55.

[xii] Richard Holmes (2013) ‘The American War of Independence: The Rebels and the Redcoats’, BBC History Website, Accessed 9 November 2014.

[xiii] Lucas, op. cit..

[xiv] Ibid..

[xv] See Spavold & Brown, op. cit..

The Taxman Cometh: Exploring a 17th Century South Derbyshire Home

Introduction

This is the first ‘archaeological story’ in a series of posts that explore everyday life in the 17th century through an early modern manor house in South Derbyshire:[i] ‘Upper Hall’ – a private home, recently visited by the author.[ii] We take an imaginary tour around the dwelling in 1662, by following (unseen) a visitor to this building: Samuel Beighton, the petty constable.[iii] Written sources indicate the responsibility of this person for assessing the Hearth Tax in this year.[iv] Though fictitious, archaeological and other historical evidence informs the tale.[v]

Brief discussion of this approach, background information and on Hearth Tax, is outlined within the previous post ‘Expedition into the Past: Tales of a 17th Century Derbyshire Manor House’. The preceding post ‘From Yeoman to Gentleman: Peopling a 17th Century South Derbyshire Manor House’ investigates the early residents of the house, using written evidence to produce ‘family histories’, and to consider social relationships between and within the families that occupied the Hall, and the wider community. An earlier post, ‘Living in the Early Modern Past: the 17th Century Home’, provides a backdrop for this series, outlining the domestic environment and material culture at this time for the typical yeoman household.

In this post, we follow Samuel as he approaches Upper Hall, and considers the impressive façade.

Location, Location, Location…

It is Michaelmas, in the 13th year of the reign of Charles II (were it not for the Puritan Purge of the Commonwealth) – September 1662. Those whose property he had hitherto protected from ne’r-do-wells had soon come to scorn Samuel Beighton: he now aroused enmity from poachers and landowners alike. The Hearth Tax[vi] (or Chimney Tax, as some call it) has not proved a popular innovation, devised (it is said) to sustain the recently restored monarch in his indolence and debauchery.[vii]

Parish Constable in Elizabethan Jacobean

The Elizabethan – Jacobean Petty Constable (Source)

Undoubtedly, it is only proper that the constable should search the humble hovels in which he suspects are concealed stolen goods (for the theft of game and sheep rightly deserves stiff punishment – the branding that many receive is far too lenient).[viii] But the very notion that Beighton is now empowered to intrude within the homes of reputable families – who by their good grace elected the man to his office – is contemptible. Surely, any fool can determine the charge by counting the number of chimneys that rise above the rooftops. (Those with sham pots deserve to pay for their pretensions.) Yet he can compromise the liberty of honest men, and encroach upon private life in search of hearths – despicable. Moreover, this petty constable puts the honour of gentlemen to the test, whose word regarding the number of hearths within their own home is no longer considered adequate – an intolerable state of affairs.

Having collected his documents from the parish chest,[ix] Samuel Beighton starts out on his route around the village, to check Hearth Tax assessments submitted by local residents.

St Peter's Parish Chest

Parish chest, St Peter’s Church, Hartshorne, Derbyshire (©Grassroots Heritage 2014)[x]

He is heading for the manor house, which he can see a short distance away. Two chimney-stacks rise from the roof (which is fashionably – and expensively – tiled, and not thatched, as a common dwelling); the seven pots in all surely indicate the provision of bedroom fireplaces: such extravagance for a yeoman farmer (Samuel cannot help but wonder at the decadence he might encounter within the dwelling). He suspects that all the information he really needs to know is now before him, but the opportunity – nay, duty – to inspect this dwelling, in order to ascertain the accuracy of Master Benskin’s assessment, compels him to continue.

Nonetheless, he must tread carefully. He only retains this responsible and respectable position thanks to their acknowledgement of his merits, and meeting the requirements (he scorned the assertion that this noble office was generally given to the “poorest and weaker sort“, and was reluctant to admit that he only came to office because it was his turn, considering where he lived). Sometimes he considered paying a deputy his £3 to fulfil his tasks as a constable – this unpaid position was often more trouble than the authority it conveyed. However, at other times (perhaps such as this) he might consider serving beyond the obligatory year – after all, few could command the authority conferred by the post as he did (and he would receive 2d. in every £1 collected).

Will the family at the manor house take kindly to such an intrusion? He knows of the Benskin’s prosperity – and of their litigious reputation, in trying to hold on to their wealth. The constable finds this new ‘middling sort’ often less amenable than the landed gentry – though they too often express indignation at such government interference; the tugging of private tax collectors at their already stretched purse strings is even more distasteful to these purveyors of taste.

The constable walks down the hill, soon meeting the main thoroughfare. He must quickly step back to avoid a laden cart, the sneer upon its driver’s face suggesting to Mr Beighton a deliberate act of malice. Be-splattered by mud from the wheels on the waterlogged track, he gains some comfort from the obstacle that the cart would meet further down the road: a shepherd, and the straggling remains of his flock (likely returning from the beast sale), visible a moment ago from his vantage point on higher ground.

Abandoning his attempt to brush away the dirt from his woollen knee breeches, the constable resumes his journey. As he walks, Samuel considers the name of Upper Hall. It is no ordinary farmhouse (and positively no cottage), to be sure, but the principal residence of one of the two manors that make up the village. He contemplates the grandeur of the house and, with wry amusement, notes that, though built on a far smaller scale, it yet imitates the houses of the gentry. He looks forward to taking a closer look.

Other carts pass by before he reaches his destination – despite the short distance of his walk. The route is busy, used to carry bricks between nearby Measham and burgeoning townships beyond, and from Swadlincote and Ticknall potteries to various markets (the clattering carts suggesting that not all of their contents will be delivered intact).

Samuel soon arrives at the gate to the Hall; before him are several stone steps leading to the main entrance, elevate above the road. With not a little trepidation, he ascends the path to the front door.

Outside Upper Hall

Upper Hall: rear elevation (©Grassroots Heritage 2014)[xi]

Constable Beighton knocks with the tip of his staff upon the door (both in announcing the official nature of his call, and in anticipating that his knuckles would make little sound upon the thick oak). As he awaits an answer, he steps back slightly to take in this impressive dwelling, and casually glances around to take it in.

The timber box frame – the skeleton of the house – is made of good straight oaken beams (of the sort coveted, and he expects paid for dearly, by the Navy for its ships). The frame rests upon several courses of large stone blocks (this ‘half-timbered‘ form of construction still fashionable for the homes of the well-to-do yeoman: see the previous post on 17th century housing, which also discusses social terms). The lime-washed plastered panels of ‘wattle and daub‘ that fill the spaces between the beams reflect the bright sunlight.[xii]

The gabled wing to the right brings a gentrified air to the building, which together with the extravagantly glazed windows (and the numerous chimneys that remain within his thoughts), proclaim the modernity of this comfortable house. He again reflects upon how tall this house is when compared to nearby low cottages: not one but two storeys, with the slope of the roof suggesting further accommodation in the loft (for he sees no small holes or narrow windows to suggest that the top floor is used to store cheese or doves). Built above the level of the road, the provision of generous cellars is also to be expected.

Beighton hears sounds from within, as (he suspects) someone is coming to answer his knock. Before they reach the door, he considers who might greet him. He recalls the family pious, prim, and proud in all their finery in their prominent pews in the church, and considers what grand garb he might encounter today. But he expects that one of the servants shall first be sent to attend to him, and that he shall only meet Master Johannes or Mistress Maria if and when necessary.

Porchporch graffiti

Graffiti, front porch (©Grassroots Heritage 2014)

As the servant opens the front door, Beighton peers around the girl into the porch. (What he cannot know is that, seven years hence, some resident – or perhaps a visitor idly waiting for attendance – would leave their mark on the wall to the left: ‘W. A. 1669’, the culprit   exhibiting some degree of literacy, as well as a sense of their own importance, despite – or perhaps because – these grand surroundings.)

The porch is generously sized, and provides an impression of what might be seen beyond. The servant reluctantly bids Samuel to follow her into the building, indignant on behalf of the Master and Mistress…

Constable Beighton begins his search of the house in the following post ‘In at the Ground Floor: Exploring a 17th Century Home in South Derbyshire: ’.

Notes

[i] Within British archaeology, the Early Modern period is typically seen as beginning in the mid 16th century, and ending in the mid – late 18th century. For a fuller discussion see the previous post the preceding post ‘Expedition into the Past: Tales of a 17th Century Derbyshire Manor House’.

[ii] For information on the circumstances of access to the property, see ‘Expedition into the Past’ (op. cit.). The full address of this property is withheld in order to retain the occupant’s privacy.

[iii] For background information on the petty constable, see E. Trotter (ed.) 1980 Seventeenth Century Life in the Country Parish, p. 83 ff.; also see William Edward Tate (1969: 3rd Ed.) The Parish Chest: A Study of the Records of Parochial Administration in England, pp. 176-87.

[iv] For information on the Hearth Tax, see Hearth Tax Online.

[v] For more information on the ‘story-telling’ approach, see ‘Expedition into the Past’ (op. cit.). Italicised text is used to denote discussion of later and features, and to present background information, outside the main narrative.

[vi] For Hearth Tax records see the National Archives online catalogue.

[vii] See Tim Harris (2005) ‘Charles II: The Reality Behind the Merry Monarchy’, History Today Vol. 55. Iss. 6.

[viii] See note iii..

[ix] For information on the contents and historical value of the parish chest, a classic text Tate (op cit.).

[x] For more information on the photographs of Upper Hall, see ‘Expedition into the Past’. All images of the building and associated artefacts may not be reproduced without the express permission of the LIP project and property owners.

[xi] The front of the property is not illustrated in order to retain the privacy of the occupants.

[xii] Wattle and daub was frequently composed of woven rods of the flexible hazel, covered with clay containing binding material, such as horsehair, straw, and dung. Though most commonly off-white in colour, organic pigments such as ochre (to give a buff hue), or iron oxide (to give an earthy red hue), were sometimes added to lime-wash to tint the finish.

From Yeoman to Gentleman: ‘Peopling’ a 17th Century South Derbyshire Manor House

Introduction

This post is one of the series that explores everyday life in the early modern period,[i] through an early 17th century manor house in South Derbyshire, which the author recently had opportunity to visit.[ii] This private home, ‘Upper Hall’, is of interest to the historian in both the preservation of early features, and the availability of related written sources.[iii]

This post investigates the early residents of the house, using written evidence to produce ‘family histories’, and to consider social relationships between and within the families that occupied the Hall, and the wider community. This follows on from ‘Living in the Early Modern Past: the 17th Century Home’, which provides a backdrop for this series, outlining the domestic environment and material culture at this time for a smaller early modern yeoman household. Subsequent posts, beginning with ‘A 17th Century Home in South Derbyshire: In at the Ground Floor’, will describe the domestic environment and material culture commonly associated with such households in the middle of the 17th century. These descriptive and interpretative posts adopt an ‘archaeological story-telling’ approach – a method discussed in the preceding post ‘Expedition into the Past: Tales of a 17th Century Derbyshire Manor House’.

Meet the Benskins

Benskin family (variously spelt Benskyn or Benskine – the different forms perhaps used to differentiate between different branches of the family),[iv] prosperous yeoman farmers from at least the mid 16th century (see below), built (or more likely, had built) Upper Hall as built their home.[v] As was typical until the mid 20th century (the explanation for which would be out-of-place here!), the family was large, with each generation perpetuating the names of their forebears (a factor that holds the potential to cause confusion when needing to differentiate between successive family members).

In the late 16th – early 17th centuries, the head of the family within the village was Johannis (sometimes spelt Johannes; often abbreviated as Johis. or Johes.), who shall here be referred to as John I (and highlighted in red on the family tree below). Sometime after the birth of his son Johannis in 1600 (here referred to as John II, highlighted in green, on the family tree below), John I came to be known as Johannis Snr. in the records.

Benskin Family Tree John II

Benskin Family Tree John I

Tentative family trees: John Benskin I, highlighted in red, showing siblings of John II (highlighted in green)

In the years after the death of his father (John I) in 1637-38, John II became known as ‘old’ John, in order to differentiate between him and his own son Johannis (here referred to as John III, probably born in 1627 or 1630, and highlighted in blue on the family tree below).[vi] John III – known in the records as ‘John Jnr.’ – may have had a son called John: the parish records record the burial of a John ‘son of Johannis Juinioris’) in early April 1663. Seven years later, in recording the burial of his (also named John – consequently here IV) mother Maria, she is described as wife of ‘old man’ John, which it must be presumed is John II, who in this year would have reached 70 years of age. (There are also several nephews and cousins named John, who we shall pass over.)

Benskin Family Sam I

Benskin Family Tree Richard I & II

Benskin Family Tree John III

Tentative Benskin family trees constructed from parish records (liable to modification with further investigation of historic records).[vii]

The family had evidently achieved remarkable success over several generations, as tenant farmers of grazing lands.[viii] In the middle of the previous century, the goods of a certain Ralph Benskin were assessed for tax purposes; his payment recorded as the highest in the village.[ix] The exact location of the Benskin household within the manor at this time is uncertain, although the 1616 pew plan for the local church might tentatively be used to investigate the composition of the community, and to consider social hierarchies within the village, between this time and the first records for the church rate assessments in 1619 (see below). The plan does not record the ‘Upper Hall’ as it now stands, which they had not yet built; dendrochronological investigation provides dates from building timbers that support stylistic conclusions of construction in the early 17th century.[x] However, a pew at the front of the church for residents of ‘The Hall’ suggests the presence of an earlier important residency, perhaps on lands in the Upper Hall manor. (Alternatively, ‘The Hall’ is perhaps instead associated with nearby Newhall, formerly the seat of the rectory patrons, the Dethick family).[xi] ‘Ould Hall’ recorded in the 1666 rates assessment (see below)[xii] arguably corresponds to this building.

The plan names most pew occupants; however, although wealthy members of the community (see below),[xiii] it does not record the Benskin family by name. Considered in conjunction with their subsequent construction of Upper Hall manor house, this raises the possibility that they occupied the earlier Hall, and the associated box pew, although one of the other properties named on the plan might alternatively represent the family.[xiv] The plan also records pews for Nether Hall, the adjoining manor that with Upper Hall lands forms the village, and located approximately 1 ¼ miles to the west of the Upper Hall.[xv]

1616 Pew Plan

Plan of the box pews in the nearby church, 1616[xvi]

By 1619, John Benskin (I) pays the highest rates; his son (John II) pays a much smaller amount; and Samuel Benskin (the probable brother of John I; highlighted in orange, on the family tree above) likewise pays comparatively little, at times much less than John Jnr. (II), who was at other times (1628) un-rated.[xvii]

John I pays rates in the summer assessment of 1629 on his ‘livings’ (income or revenue, commonly from lands or property), but in the winter is assessed for his new house, which is interpreted as Upper Hall.[xviii] This terminus ante quem for Upper Hall correlates with the dendrochronology dates of 1618-28.[xix] From the information currently at hand, it seems most likely that the house was built on the more substantial manor estate of the two that formed the village (probably on land rented, rather than purchased, from the gentry, though see below),[xx] some time (at most a few years) before or after the death of this first wife, Sarah (obit. 1625). If the above family tree is correct, the surviving children of John would at this time have been in their late 20s (which does not preclude their living with their parents, or father, at this time);[xxi] his grandchildren seem to have mostly been born in the second half of the 1620s.

John’s (I) continued to pay the highest rates in the village through the 1630s, though the amount declines during this time.[xxii] The rate assessments of 1636 and 1637 entries are incomplete, with possible missing pages; but those dating to and after 1638 do not list him, suggesting that he died during this period;[xxiii] his will was proved in 1637.[xxiv] Samuel’s fortunes seem to rise during this decade, as in 1635 he occupies the second manor house in the village, Nether Hall.[xxv] John II appears to have inherited his father’s estate by 1638, residing within Upper Hall, his rates valued at a similar level to that paid by his father during his possible final assessment, making John II the highest ratepayer.[xxvi] The surviving rate assessments suggest that this pre-eminence continued through to the 1650s,[xxvii] despite family involvement within at least one dispute over property in the village. In 1655, when John II and Samuel are still living at Upper Hall and Nether Hall, respectively, there is a chancery case between plaintiffs John (presumably II) and Samuel Benskin (I?), and Richard Compton (and other defendants).[xxviii] An early 18th century ‘history’ by William Woolley refers to a Henry Compton selling manor lands in the later 16th century to ‘Berkins’ (a scribal or transcription error for ‘Benskin’??), who then sold land to ‘Capt. Thomas Colson’, whose son sold the land to the author of the ‘history’.[xxix] This chain of events raises interesting possibilities with respect to this court case, and others that follow (see below).

Though the rates returns are then unavailable until 1663,[xxx] other documents tantalisingly hint at some of the accommodation, activities, and attitudes, of Benskin family members during this time. A James, son of Samuel Benskin (perhaps Samuel Benskin the younger, highlighted in brown on the above family tree), begins a London apprenticeship in 1661-62, at which time his father is described as a ‘gentleman’.[xxxi] The 1662 Hearth Tax payment for seven hearths suggests that John continued to occupy the Hall, or a building in the village of similar proportions; he pays the highest amount behind Thomas Coulson, who apparently occupied a house equipped with one more chargeable hearth than John.[xxxii]

It would be interesting to hear from local historians as to whether the ‘Newhall’ owned by ‘Capt. Thomas Colson’ referred to by Woolley (see above) may or may not corresponds to this building.[xxxiii] The payment of tax by Samuel Benskin may either suggest that Nether Hall was a small dwelling with only a single hearth (which seems unlikely), or that only one Samuel Benskin resided in the village at that time, the elder by then having moved from the Hall; the return does not mentioned Compton.[xxxiv] When the rates records resume in the following year, this change in prominence seems to continue, with ‘Mr Coulson’ paying the highest rates for an unnamed property in the Upper Hall manor (again, perhaps ‘Newhall’ – see above), though only slightly more than John Benskyn and his sons.[xxxv] Samuel Benskin is again associated with the Nether Hall manor, paying the highest rates.[xxxvi] Another property dispute (potentially relating to the Upper Hall manor) is recorded in this year,[xxxvii] between Benskin and ‘Oldershaw’ (who, though not mentioned on the Hearth Tax return,[xxxviii] appears at the top of the rates assessment list in 1665, for an apparently unnamed property: see below).[xxxix]

Upper Hall manor (south-east: below centre right) and Nether Hall manor (north-west: above centre left) sectors of the village (image: Bing Maps). Note the medieval ridge and furrows (wide s-shaped rows of earth) within the curved fields around the village (narrower, straighter ridges usually date to a later period)

Upper Hall (south-east: bottom left) and Nether Hall (north-west: top right) sectors of the village (image: Bing Maps). Note the medieval fields ridge and furrows (wide s-shaped  rows of earth) in fields around the village (narrower, straighter ridges usually date to a later period).

Upper Hall (south-east: bottom left) and Nether Hall (north-west: top right) sectors of the village (image: Bing Maps). Note the medieval fields ridge and furrows (wide s-shaped rows of earth) in fields around the village (narrower, straighter ridges usually date to a later period).

The following years appear to be a time of change for the Benskin family, although without examining the original documents, it is only possible to speculate the extent to which further chancery cases affected this change. The legal dispute of 1664 was within the family, between the plaintiffs John (II?) and Samuel (II?), and John (III, or son of Samuel I?), alongside other unnamed defendants.[xl] The 1665 rate assessment does not mention of Upper Hall, but records a John Benskin as paying rates on the ‘Coppies’ (perhaps the Coppice Farm, to the north-east of the village centre;[xli] if referring to John II (and not his son, or a son of Samuel), this may support the suggestion that Upper Hall was vacant at this time.[xlii] The assessment also mentions payments from Samuel and Richard Benskyn (the latter probably a son of John II; highlighted in purple on the above family tree), although with no reference to their abode.[xliii] Though perhaps by now their occupation of the Upper Hall (though possibly not of the lands: see below) had ended, it might be conjectured that the connections of the Benskin family with the manor aided their ascendant social status. The author has not yet had opportunity to undertake further study of the Parish records, which might determine the extent to which the Bubonic Plague (particularly that of 1665) affected the village (and property ownership or occupation).

Samuel still pays rates for Nether Hall in 1672,[xliv] the year of another chancery case, in which the defendants are Samuel (probably III, as a will for a Samuel Benskin, of the same village, is dated to 1671), John (II or III?), and Richard Benskin (I: see above). Chancery records name the plaintiffs as John Hope, Thomas Greene (who may subsequently occupy the hall: see below, and whose family may have lived in the village at least since the early 1660s).[xlv] Another is John Cantrell, who belongs to a local family, some of whom may have held land outside the village, and whose likely descendants (and perhaps himself), later occupy the Hall (see below).[xlvi] It is uncertain whether this dispute relates directly to manor lands or the Hall, but subsequent developments (see below) perhaps support this possibility.

Despite (or because) of these disputes (it is at this stage unknown to the author whether they increased or diminished family fortunes), the social position of some members of the Benskin family seems to rise, or at least remain stable. In the mid 1670s, Richard (I: see above), like his relative (probably uncle) Samuel before him, is described as a ‘gentleman’, at the beginning of the apprenticeship of his son Richard (II: highlighted in pink on the family tree above).[xlvii]

By 1678, Thomas Benskin (possibly the eldest surviving son of Samuel I, who was perhaps by then deceased: highlighted in yellow on the Benskin family trees, above) pays rates on Nether Hall, and continues to do so for the next two years.[xlviii] After this, the family appear to be absent from the village rates assessments, although they perhaps continue to fight in the courts with local landowners over property within, and possibly around, the village.[xlix]

New blood at the Old Hall

Oldershaw and Greene

Upper Hall had not been mentioned in the rates since 1655 (though as mentioned above, the records between this date and 1663 are missing), and the name remains absent for some time. However, ‘ould hall’ occurs in 1666, on which ‘Mr Ouldershaw’ (see above) pays rates.[l] Although it has been suggested that this building is unlikely to represent Upper Hall,[li] there is perhaps some connection with the Upper Hall manor lands, considering the aforementioned legal dispute between ‘Oldershaw’ and Benskin (see above). If not referring to Upper Hall, ‘old Hall’ might instead represent the building mentioned in the 1616 pew plan (see above). A late 19th century OS map records an ‘Old Hall’ to the north-west of the village, perhaps Nether Hall.[lii] (Local historians with greater knowledge of the area may be able to dismiss or verify this possibility, and comment upon the origins of this building – and whether, instead, the land (and possibly buildings) relates to the ‘Newhall’ mentioned above). By 1668, Thomas Greene becomes the highest rated villager in paying for Old Hall, where he remained until at least December 1671.)[liii]

As noted above, there is a property dispute between the Benskins, Thomas Greene, John Hope, and John Cantrell, in the following year. It has been proposed that Old Hall is partitioned in this year (perhaps indicating the equation of this building and Upper Hall, considering division of the latter seemingly early in its history; otherwise, this change may reflect substantial social changes in the village at this time; John Beighton is named as a tenant.[liv] This surname had appeared in the Hearth Tax return (see above), with reference to a certain Sam. Beighton who paid tax on a single hearth, and to a (petty) constable Samuel Beighton (who was responsible for collecting the tax) – probably either the same person, or close relatives. Chancery records again name Thomas Greene and John Cantrell as plaintiffs (along with a certain John Browne) in a property dispute of 1678, now against Arthur and William Taylor (both alias Leighton).[lv] An Arthur and William Taylor are recorded on the Hearth Tax return, paying 4s and 2s, respectively, the former amount indicating a relatively well-to-do Yeoman dwelling for the time, the latter quite a comfortable house for a successful small tenant farmer or artisan family (see the previous post).[lvi] The William Taylor named c. 1712 as at that time having ‘a good new brick house and estate’ in Nether Hall perhaps represents another family connection.[lvii] Old Hall subsequently seems to disappear from the church rates, and Upper Hall reappears in the assessment for the following year (1679), though without reference to the occupant.[lviii] There is no reference to either Old Hall or Upper Hall in the 1681 assessment.[lix]

Cantrell and Cant

The next recorded occupant of Upper Hall is John Cantrell. The Cantrell family appear to have resided in or near the village for some time, with a Thomas Cantrell named on the 1616 pew plan (see above). A John Cantrell pays relatively low rates in the 1619 assessment, though this value very gradually rises over the years.[lx] (This person is perhaps equated with or related to the yeoman John Cantrell who is recorded as owning land in nearby Kings Newton, in his will, proved 1616.)[lxi] He paid only a shilling Hearth Tax, suggesting that he occupies a small house;[lxii] in the following year, he appears on the assessment for the Nether Hall part of the village.[lxiii]

It might be conjectured that John Cantrell did not do badly in the 1672 property dispute mentioned above against the Benskins (which it is presumed sought to establish ownership of manor lands or dwellings). By the early 1680s, the Cantrell family were wealthy members of the local community, the men referred to as ‘gentlemen’ by the early decades of the following century.[lxiv] In 1681, John Cantrell (presumably the elder, suffixed hereafter I) is rated for Lea Wood, located to the west of the Upper Hall village; though the occupant is not recorded, Nether Hall is listed below this entry; John continues to be associated with this manor for several years after.[lxv] The younger John Cantrell (suffixed hereafter II) is described as heading the list for Hartshorne, although the assessment neglects to mention either Old Hall Upper Hall.[lxvi] Upper Hall and Lea Wood lands are assessed together by 1688, though separately from Nether Hall; it is been noted that, though the occupants are not specified, John Cantrell I is involved with approving the accounts.[lxvii] If this comment refers to Nether Hall, this may indicate that by this time, John I either no longer, or had not previously, occupied the Netherhall house, despite paying rates on surrounding land. John (presumably II) paid by far the highest poor rates in 1690 (which assessed land and buildings, rather than goods); the assessment also records Nether Hall, though its occupant is unnamed.[lxviii] The suggestion that John II occupied Upper Hall in the 1681s has been tempered by his marriage settlement of 1694 not mentioning the house.[lxix]

Woolley’s History of Derbyshire records that by 1712, ‘John Cantrell’ (I) occupied Upper Hall, ‘a good brick and stone house’ (note the attempt to play-down the timber-frame construction, which was by this time unfashionable), who owned much of the manor lands, and had done so for some time.[lxx] (Due to apparent OCR conversion inaccuracies in the detailed summary from which most of the information in this section derives; the following reading is therefore likely to be imperfect, and will be modified when mistakes become known.)[lxxi]

In this year, John Cantrell (II), a ‘gentleman’, granted consent for Robert (the younger son of John I, and younger brother of John II) to receive a 500-year lease of the manor house and lands (including receipt of their revenue); John I devised this scheme in order to provide Robert with a share of £1000.[lxxii] The elder John was to continue to hold the manor until his death, when it would transfer to Robert and his trustees for what was left of the 500-year lease, unless John II paid £1000 within 6 months of his father’s death, thereby cancelling Robert’s lease.[lxxiii]

John II died in late 1722 or early 1723, leaving his lands in trust.[lxxiv] His will provided his daughter Anne (born c. 1705: see below) with an annual allowance of £30 derived from their revenue, until her marriage or coming of age, after which she would receive a portion of the £1000.[lxxv] His eldest son John (III, born c. 1704: see below) – again described as a ‘gentleman’ – inherited what was left of the revenue from the estate, which if he had no heirs was to pass to Anne, and if she had no children, to Robert.[lxxvi]

Several chancery cases involving the Cantrell family may have either derived from, or were a cause of, John the elder’s scheme to provide for his dependants. A case of 1722 lists the defendants as John (presumably III), aged 18, Anne, aged 17, and Robert, ‘an infant’, and Robert Orton, the guardian of Anne and Robert, suggesting that by this time their father (John II) had died.[lxxvii] One plaintiff is John Browne – apparently the same person named as plaintiff with John Cantrell in a 1678 property dispute (see above); the others are a Joseph Ragg and one Leonard Piddock.[lxxviii]

A case of the following year (1723) indicates that John II died in debt. The defendants of the previous case are named as plaintiffs in this writ, and referred to as creditors of the recently deceased John Cantrell (II): Joseph Ragg and John Brown are described as yeomen (of a nearby village, and as a previous resident of the manor, respectively), Leonard Piddock is a ‘gentleman’ (of a nearby small town).[lxxix] The defendants were William Orton, Thomas Broad, Anne Cantrell, and Robert Cantrell (both Cantrells still minors at this time).[lxxx] Another case in the same year names as plaintiff, Anne as ‘spinster, an infant (by Richard Orton)’, as she has not yet reached her majority; the defendants are Thomas Broad (described as ‘gentleman’), William Orton, Robert Cantrell and John Cantrell.[lxxxi]

The dispute continues with a case in the next year (1724). Anne is defendant, still an ‘infant’ and acting under the guardianship of Richard Orton, and described as ‘spinster (daughter of John Cantrell, deceased …)’; the plaintiffs are John Cantrell ‘son and heir of said John Cantrell’ (also still legally ‘an infant’), ‘William Orton and Thomas Broad (executors of said John Cantrell, deceased)’, and Robert Cantrell.[lxxxii] Anne (by then aged 20) yet again seeks justice in the following year (1725), bringing a case against William Orton and John Cantrell, ‘an infant aged 18 years, ([acted for] by William Noon)’; the age of this John suggests the possibility that he may not be her brother, but another family member.[lxxxiii]

Perhaps in the following year, John III and the executors of his father’s estate (named in the above mentioned chancery case of the previous year as William Orton and Thomas Broad)[lxxxiv] mortgaged Upper Hall manor house, lands, and buildings, paying Robert his share of the £1000, ending his lease on the property. The chancery records document what seems to be a final case in this year (1726), between the defendants Ann (evidently unmarried, and before her 21st birthday, as still a ‘spinster’ and ‘infant’), with Robert Orton, against Robert Cantrell.[lxxxv] Other chancery cases might provide further information on the property.[lxxxvi]

It seems that John I lived at the Hall until 1729[lxxxvii] – at which time (it might be speculated) perhaps he died. By early 1729 or 1730, a Cantrell ‘heiress’ (most likely Anne) had married William Cant, a ‘gentleman’ of Nether Broughton, Leicestershire.[lxxxviii] At around this time, John Cantrell III (who was then also residing in Broughton) mortgaged the manor and hall to his ‘brother-in-law’ ‘as security’ of his sister’s share of the £1000, and it is assumed that the couple took up residency of Upper Hall.[lxxxix]

William Cant still held the Hall and lands in 1765, named as ‘Lord of the Manor’ when giving consent ‘for a cottage to be set up for Abraham Harvey’, dated to 17 May.[xc]

Upper Hall: a reward for defending against despotism, or for supporting treason?

A final note that may be of interest to modern readers is the (albeit distant) link between the Hall and international politics (and recent TV period drama!). According to 19th century directories, William Bayley Cant – a grandson of William Cant, who died in 1800 – bequeathed the manor to the Lord Thomas Erskine.[xci] The intended recipient was a lawyer, to whom Cant made the bequest in acknowledgement of his defence of John Horne TookeThomas Hardy, and John Thelwall, who were tried for high treason in 1794. The case, an important test for British constitutional rights, was portrayed in the superb (though not always entirely accurate historically) BBC series, Garrow’s Law (Series 1, Episode 4). However, a legal error with the will resulted in John Murcot, Esq. holding the manor, through a certain Miss Partridge (cousin and heiresses of Cant).[xcii]

garrows_law_1-3

Now familiar with the characters that lived in and were involved with Upper Hall during the first two centuries after construction, the reader is invited to look inside the dwelling, to discover what home life was like in the 17th century for the families discussed above. The next post, ‘Living in the Early Modern Past: A 17thcentury South Derbyshire Home’, explores the everyday existence of the Benskin family, by exploring their home.

Notes

[i] In the UK, archaeological studies generally define the Early Modern period as the time after the late medieval era, and before widespread industrialisation, i.e. most commonly mid 16th – mid 18th centuries. For a discussion of the term, see the preceding post ‘An Expedition into the Past: Tales of a 17th Century Derbyshire Manor House’.

[ii] For information on the circumstances of access to the property, see ‘Expedition into the Past’ (op. cit.).

[iii] In order to retain the privacy of the occupants, the full address of this property is withheld.

[iv] The names of the occupants of Upper Hall, and approximate dates when the property changed hands, were initially obtained from a small pamphlet on the property compiled by South Derbyshire Conservation Officer Philip Heath, printed by SDDC in 2000, revised 2011, provided by the owners of the property during the visit. Further information from Daniel and Samuel Lysons, 1817 Magna Britannia, pp. 176-77; and with regard to the family and estate in the 16th century, the village Parish Council website.

[v] Ralph Benskin was given the status of ‘Yeoman’ in the mid 16th century (Parish Council, ibid.), which is also given to John Benskin (perhaps his son or grandson) of in his 1637 will (National Archives, Prob. 11/175/408).

[vi] Recorded in the 1662 Hearth Tax return, available online for the village, here; see below.

[vii] The family tree, constructed from parish records, is at this stage only tentative; the names and dates used here are therefore for the time being provisional.

[viii] Village Parish Council (op cit., note iv.).

[ix] Rated at £20 (ibid.), which according to the National Archives Historic Currency Calculator, is approximately equivalent to £4000 in today’s money (which seems a reasonable estimate), and could pay the wages of a builder for three days (which seems less reasonable!).

[x] ‘Tree ring’ dating of timbers from the hall provide a bracket of 1618-28 (Heath, op cit., note iv.).

[xi] See William Woolley, c.1712, History of Derbyshire (Trans. & ed. Catherine Glover and Philip Riden 1981, Derbyshire Record Society, Vol. 6, pp.153-5Date accessed: 16 October 2014)However, legal records perhaps allow for a transcription error, whereby the ‘Berkins’ of this text (who held property in Newhall before selling to Thomas Coulson – another named that appears several times in a variety of records: see below) might instead be read as ‘Benskin’, the family might still be associated with an earlier Hall, before Upper Hall was built. The numerous chancery cases, including several involving members of the Benskin family, that dispute property ownership in the villages, will be discussed briefly below.

[xii] Parish Council (op cit., note iv.).

[xiii] Ibid..

[xiv] Ibid..

[xv] Bagshaw’s Trade Directory of Derbyshire, 1846.

[xvi] Photo: copy of a document on display in the parish church.

[xvii] John I was rated at 8s.10d. in 1619, more than twice as much as the next highest payer (James Royle); 9s.4d in 1620; and in 1627 at 10s.6d. and 10s.5d., in the summer and winter assessments, respectively. John II is first rated in 1627 at 5s., appearing in only in the summer (earlier) rates assessment. In 1628, his relative Samuel Benskin was rated at 2d. (Parish Council: op cit., note iv.).

[xviii] The 1629 Mr Benskin (it must be presumed John I) is recorded as first paying 16s. rates on his livings, and then 8s. for his new house; in addition he paid £l.l0s.ld. rates on beasts and sheep – again the highest for the village. Samuel Benskin paid 12s. on his house (though lower than John I, only one other person paid this amount, with others paying no more than 9s.4d.), and 7s.2d. on beasts and sheep; John II was un-rated for this assessment (ibid.).

[xix] Heath (op cit., note iv.).

[xx] Woolley records that the Upper Hall manor land was held in the early 16th century by a daughter (under William Abbot) of John Ireland, after the death of their father; the Compton family is described as owning land from the mid 16th century (op cit., note xi.). However, this source is scanty, confused, and perhaps inaccurate, and ownership of the lands in the 17th century is uncertain within one local history (Parish Council: op cit., note iv.). Legal records perhaps allow for a transcription error, whereby ‘Berkins’ might instead be read as ‘Benskin’.

The complexities of land and / or property ownership in the villages is complex and frequently contested (with several chancery cases involving members of the Benskin family, potentially indicating their ownership of some manor land, as well as dwellings), as will be seen below. The attribution of some family members as ‘gentleman’ in the second half of the 17th century may also suggest land ownership: see below.

[xxi] It was common at this time for the children of even wealth families to die young, and the Benskin family was no exception: see the putative family trees (op cit., note vii.).

[xxii] In 1630 John I continued to pay the highest rates, though this had dropped to 8s.10d.; Samuel Benskyn paid the next largest amount at 3s.2d (with no one else paying above 2s.lld.); John II is again rated, but at only a few pence. John I is recorded as paying 4s. rates on the Upper hall in 1635 and 10s.4d. on his goods or beasts and sheep. His son John (II) paid 5d. for the residue of the ‘Halls and Roes’ tenements (on part of which one Thomas Mellor paid 16d.), with a joint payment of 16d. for goods (Parish Council: op cit., note iv.).

[xxiii] Ibid..

[xxiv] National Archives (Prob. 11/175/408).

[xxv] In 1635, Samuel Benskyn paid 3s. for the Nether Hall, with his goods rated at 3s.3d. (Parish Council: op cit., note iv.).

[xxvi] During and after 1638, now the head of the family, John II paid 4s.8d. on his living and 9s.4d. on goods; Samuel Benskyn was paying 3s. and 4s.6d., respectively (ibid.).

[xxvii] In 1655, John II paid 7s.7d. and Samuel Benskyn 4s.3d. (with only one other paying more than 3s.); the assessment from 1655 to 1663 are missing (ibid.).

[xxviii] National Archives, C 5/406/122; other cases may relate to the relevant Derbyshire families, though this possibility needs verification, e.g. .a case in 1652 (C 6/118/123), regarding property at nearby Melbourne and Kings Newton, involving one Thomas Benskin – perhaps son of John II (Rivett v Rivett. Plaintiffs Theodore Rivett and John Bucknall; defendants William Rivett, Mary Rivett, Bryan Beanly and Thomas Benskin), is particularly interesting, and could provide insight into the location and extent of lands farmed by the Benskin and Cantrell families (see below).

[xxix] See Woolley (op cit., note xi.).

[xxx] The church rates assessments are missing 1655-63 (Parish Council: op cit., note iv.).

[xxxi] In January of 1661 or 1662, Samuel Benskin [of the village in which Upper Hall is located] is described as a gentleman, when his son James is taken on as an apprentice distiller, James Etwall, in London (John Palmer, n.d. The Wirksworth Website).

[xxxii] For information on the Hearth Tax, see ‘Expedition into the Past: Tales of a 17th Century Derbyshire Manor House’. Thomas Coulson (perhaps the ‘Captain Thomas Colson’ recorded as owing property in Newhall during or after the late 16th century in Woolley’s History of c. 1712, op cit., note vi.) pays the highest amount, at 8s.. This compares to John Benskin’s payment of 7s., suggesting that Coulson’s house had an additional hearth, and therefore may have been either larger, or better appointed. The odd amount is due to this being the first collection: in subsequent years, two yearly collections were made, resulting in a payment of 2s. for each hearth p.a. (1662 Hearth Tax return, op cit.: note vi.). Thomas Coulson is perhaps the ‘Captain Thomas Colson’ recorded as owing property in Newhall during or after the late 16th century in Woolley’s History of c. 1712  (op cit., note xi.).

[xxxiii] Ibid..

[xxxiv] Parish Council (op cit., note iv.).

[xxxv] John II and his sons pay 8s.10d.; Coulson pays 9s. (ibid.).

[xxxvi] Samuel Benskyn pays 7s.10d. (ibid.).

[xxxvii] National Archives, C 9/31/100.

[xxxviii] Hearth Tax return 1662, op cit. (note vi.).

[xxxix] Parish Council (op cit., note iv.).

[xl] National Archives, C 6/39/33 & C 6/39/41, the documents seemingly only differing with regard to spellings of the surname.

Family disputes continue in the 1680s, though most likely regarding land or other property outside the village. A writ is issued (ibid.: C 6/279/15) regarding the personal estate of the deceased Robert Granger by ‘Elizabeth Granger ‘widow’ (likely to be the daughter of John II: see family tree, above) and her possible brother, Thomas Benskin, in 1685 against William Tomlinson, Walter Bagnold and Alexander Walthall. At least one the defendants had married a Benskin daughter: the parish records record that Jana (an abbreviation of Johanna) Benskin married Walter Bagnold in the village, on 23 January 1611 (Parish Council: op cit., note iv.).

[xli] Later maps record a ‘Coppice Farm’ to the northeast of the village (OS 1:2500 1st Ed. Sheet).

[xlii] John Benskyn pays 4s.10d. (Parish Council: op cit., note iv.).

[xliii] Samuel pays 7s.10d., and Richard 2s.8d. (ibid.).

[xliv] Ibid..

[xlv] One Robert Greene is listed as paying a shilling Hearth Tax in the 1662 return (op cit., note vi.).

[xlvi]  National Archives, C 6/209/13, and C 22/238/13.

[xlvii] In 1675, Richard Benskin [of the village in which Upper Hall is located] is recorded as ‘son of Richard…gentleman’ being apprenticed to the Waxchandler Paul Ridly, March 1675 (London Apprenticeship Abstracts, 1442-1850).

[xlviii] Thomas paid 7s.10d. (Parish Council: op cit., note iv.).

[xlix] The exact dates of some disputes, recorded as taking place between 1558 and 1714, require verification at the National Archives, e.g. between Benskin and Cantrell: C 22/236/53; C 22/238/13, and C 22/329/41; also with Royle (C 22/418/23).

[l] Mr Ouldershaw is recorded as paying 2.10d. (Parish Council: op cit., note iv.).

[li] Ibid..

[lii] Ordnance Survey, op cit. (note xli.).

[liii] Thomas Greene pays 7s.8d. on this property (Parish Council: op cit., note iv.).

[liv] John Beighton paid 5s.; the Old Hall is rated at 7s.7d. in 1679 (ibid.).

[lv] National Archives, C 6/209/13. Though perhaps a coincidence, the similarity between the uncommon alias, and name of the Old Hall tenant, the conjecture of either an early spelling mistake in the records, or later transcription error, and the same family (Beighton) being involved in litigation, tenancy, and taxation might be looked into further.

[lvi] Hearth Tax return, 1662, op cit. (note vi.).

[lvii] Woolley, op cit. (note xi.).

[lviii] Parish Council (op cit., note iv.).

[lix] Ibid.

[lx] The 1619 assessment records 15 rate payers in the village who pay less than John Cantrell, though this is likely to be a comparatively small amount; in 1629 he pays 2s., and in 1638 he pays only 6d. on his living, and ls.8d. on goods (ibid.).

[lxi] National Archives, Prob 11/127/261; the author will transcribe a digital copy of this document as soon as possible, and post the information it contains.

[lxii] Hearth Tax return 1662, op cit. (note vi.).

[lxiii] Parish Council (op cit., note iv.).

[lxiv] Woolley (op. cit., note xi.).

[lxv] Parish Council (op cit., note iv.)

[lxvi] Ibid..

[lxvii] Ibid..

[lxviii] Cantrell paid 17s., nearly twice the amount of the next highest occupier, who paid 9s.6d.; 7s.10d was paid on Nether Hall (ibid.).

[lxix] The entry for Nether Hall, which has no name provided, follows that for Lea Wood; John Cantrell Jnr. pays 7s.7d. (ibid.).

[lxx]  Woolley (op cit., note xi.).

[lxxi] This author has found it difficult to interpret the series of events regarding ownership and lease of manor lands from the online summary, which appears to contain textual (apparently OCR recognition) errors; differentiating between the many and various ‘Johns’ is also at times difficult! For example, difficulties derive from the comment that John Cantrell the elder still occupied the Hall in 1792, and was still living in 1796 (Parish Council, op cit.: note iv.).

[lxxii] Robert is described as previously abiding in the City of London, but at that time being a Hartshorne haberdasher, and John II as at that time living in Cirencester (ibid.).

[lxxiii] Ibid..

[lxxiv] The author is about to begin transcribing a digital copy of John Cantrell’s will of April 1723 (National Archives, PROB 11/590/423), the details of which will be posted when completed.

[lxxv] Parish Council (op cit., note iv.).

[lxxvi] Ibid.; the text reads ‘1796’ for this act, though it is anticipated that inaccurate OCR recognition is at fault for converting what should be 1726 to this figure – see note lxxi.

[lxxvii] National Archives, C 11/475/54; a William Orton, presumably relative of the Cantrell guardian, is also named as defendant.

[lxxviii] Ibid..

[lxxix] National Archives, C 11/475/53.

[lxxx] Ibid..

[lxxxi] Ibid., C 11/2686/45.

[lxxxii] Ibid., C 11/2771/22.

[lxxxiii] Ibid., C 11/2387/27. A further dispute (C 11/525/12) regarding property within the region may or may not involve the young John mentioned in the previous chancery case (a person called Piddock is also mentioned: see above); if relevant, it provides names and other details for members of the extended Cantrell family.

[lxxxiv] Ibid..

[lxxxv] National Archives, C 11/2392/42.

[lxxxvi] For example, C 11/2168/14, which refers to a nearby village.

[lxxxvii] Parish Council (op cit., note iv.).

[lxxxviii] Ibid..

[lxxxix] Ibid..

[xc] National Archives; held at DRO (Q/SB/2/1116).

[xci] Daniel and Samuel Lysons (op. cit, note iv.).

[xcii] Ibid.; John Murcot possibly continues to own the manor for some time, being mentioned three decades later as a property owner (though not resident) in Derbyshire, Stephen Glover (Thomas Noble ed.) 1830 The Peak Guide.

Living in the Early Modern Past: the 17th Century Home

Introduction

A recent open day enabled exploration of an early 17th century private home, built in South Derbyshire during the 1620s to house a wealthy yeoman and his family.[i] This provided a useful opportunity to revise knowledge of early modern domestic contexts,[ii] which when considered alongside other bodies of evidence – such as burials and mortuary memorials of this period – so as to potentially allow for a more rounded consideration of life in the early modern past.[iii]

Posts specifically on this building will be published soon, but before doing so, it seemed appropriate to produce a post that might provide a basic background on the Early Modern home. As a counterpoint to the forthcoming post on the yeoman house, this post will concentrate upon mid – late 17th century cottages occupied by less wealthy families of the nascent ‘middling sort’:[iv] artisans, trades-people, and small holders, with means beyond those of the poor husbandmen, but not as substantial as those of the notable yeoman landowner.[v] This expanding group benefited from financially, and enhanced their own comfort (and increasingly social position), from recent and continuing growth in trade and commerce, and concomitant consumerism, providing a broader range of household material culture, with more opportunities to emulate wealthier and higher status homes. Material culture from high status households will be illustrated below in briefly noting the changes in domestic space and in the functions of rooms, and occasional comparisons made with the housing of poorer families.[vi]

The early modern house: new ways of everyday life[vii]

The geography of what is commonly seen today as the ‘traditional’ family home (comprising entrance hall, two or three ground floor rooms, and two or three bedrooms above), is in essence a product of the early modern period. This time was one of widespread change that bought opportunities to some (through manufacturing and trade – marking the advance of consumerism, and social and political change), but also declining fortunes to many (through the many epidemics, famine and social dislocation – to some extent provoked by civil war).[viii]

The medieval hall influenced the development of the Tudor and Stuart yeoman hall house; internal space had become increasingly divided (both horizontally and vertically) so as to provide separate rooms beside the communal hall (and corridors to allow movement around and through the house), for storing, preparing, and eating food and drink, and domestic chores. The ceiling of the hall, previously open to the roof, had been lowered by the addition of a first storey floor, providing rooms above for sleeping, and for more private socialising.

Late medieval hall, Haddon Hall, Derbyshire, showing later fireplace and chimney

Late medieval hall, Haddon Hall, Derbyshire, showing later fireplace and chimney (©Grand Tours)[ix]

By the end of 16th century, chimneys had been fitted in place of the central hearth of the hall, often within (and sometimes blocking) a cross passage between doorways that opened onto the front and rear of the property dividing the building; stairs to the first storey were typically fitted beside the chimney.

In turn, these houses influenced those of less well-off yeoman (which for convenience will below be referred to as ‘yeoman cottages’), which were inevitably smaller with access to fewer funds (with less ‘curtilage’)[x] than the occupants of the post-medieval hall.

Outside the modest 17th century yeoman’s dwelling

117 West Street, Alford, Lincs

Mid-late 17th century cottage (with 18th century modifications), 117 West Street, Alford, Lincolnshire (from Google Maps)[xi]

Yeoman’s cottages in this era were typically half-timber framed, the timber walls resting upon low stone walls, the spaces between the timbers in-filled with wattle panels or lathes, covered with daub (clay and / or dung, containing binding material such as horse-hair). However, since the late 16th century, bricks were increasingly used in place of wattle and daub, and by the end of the 17th century in many areas, houses were more commonly brick built. Thatched roofs were typical, although ceramic tiles, and later slates, soon replaced this highly flammable material in built-up areas.

Diane Earl NEN Casement window

Above: 17th century style casement window with leaded lights in iron frame (Photo NEN); below: excavated remains of 17th century iron casement window frame, Jamestown, Virginia, US[xii]

Jamestown window

Dwellings were frequently double-fronted (and typically one room deep, commonly built of two, three or four ‘bays’), with a centrally placed front door between one or two ground floor timber casement windows, and dormer windows above. Over the century, small leaded lights, sometimes fitted within iron frames, were increasingly fitted, which in turn were often replaced with sash-windows during and after the 18th century. This layout immediately demonstrated to neighbours and passers-by the relative affluence of the householders, whose home had not the single ground floor room that was typically occupied by labourer’s families (examples of which can be seen here), but two rooms, facilitating the cultivation of social relationships with a degree of privacy. However, in built-up urban areas, cottages were often one room wide, and two – four deep, extending into land at the rear of the road.

The façade was generally simple, with minimal decoration, although where houses were constructed of bricks, this material was sometimes used to provide some form of ornamentation, e.g. bricks arranged in patterns such as chevrons, and herringbone. Timber framing could also to some extent be used decoratively, with the plaster infill painted using lime-wash tinted with natural pigments, such as ochre or iron oxide (for information on historic lime-wash, see here). The chimney was commonly situated approximately in the centre of the building, although another layout was the placement of a chimney at each end of the house.

Such houses were often built in pairs or in short rows, and often had only a small yard or area of ground (which was frequently shared with neighbours) abutting the house at the front or rear.[xiii] Sanitation remained basic: where not beside a watercourse that might flush waste down-stream or -river, sewage was commonly thrown onto the street, or onto the household midden (a pit or surface dump of domestic waste), which was sometimes deposited as garden or agricultural fertiliser.

Inside the small 17th century home: domestic environment and material culture

Floor plan

Layout (not to scale) of a typical mid-late 17th century yeoman cottage (e.g. comparable to the example in Lincolnshire, pictured above) (©Grassroots Heritage)[xiv]

The 17th century yeoman’s cottage was accessed through a timber plank front door, either directly from the street, or from a small front garden. There was sometimes a small lobby between the door and the wall formed by the central chimneystack, with doors to left and right leading to the rooms that came to be known as the kitchen and parlour.[xv] However, corridors were rare (thus limiting privacy). In houses without a lobby, the front door opened directly into the kitchen, although the parlour was still commonly separated from this room by a door.

THE KITCHEN[xvi]

Diane Earl  NEN hall-kitchen table

Fireplace and table in reproduction 17th century kitchen-living room (Photo NEN)[xvii]

For the multitude of neighbours who continued to inhabit single room dwellings, the kitchen as a separate room would remain a novel and unattainable reality for many generations. The labourer’s dwelling differed from the yeoman cottage in commonly having only a single, multi-purpose, ground floor room, whereas that of yeoman might have a kitchen in addition to a living room. Though comparable in having low ceilings, the thick oak beams supporting the floor above were absent from smaller houses (which at best had a simple loft above the living space for sleeping and storage, reached by a ladder). The provision of a kitchen, in which food was cooked and eaten, and many household chores were carried out, allowed the division of domestic time and space according to position within the family and in wider community. For the household servants, it remained a living and working (and for some, perhaps also sleeping) room. Though the family may have also often used this room for various purposes (including access to the rear yard and stairs to the bedrooms above), they now had an additional, more private, space, to which they might retire, in the parlour (see below).

Fixtures and fittings

C17 fire-dog,  Jamestown, US

17th century firedog, from excavations of early settlement phases at Jamestown, Virginia, US[xviii]

The fireplace was typically located within the centre wall of this room, although was sometimes built along the outer wall of the building. A stone or oak lintel generally supported this wide and deep feature, with a brick or stone hearth. It often contained wrought iron firedogs (bars to hold logs), commonly with hooks to hold spits (the combination known as ‘andirons’), possibly ‘cup dogs’ (upright stands to hold vessels in order to war liquids). Brand tongues (large, long-handled wrought iron pincers) hung within the fireplace, being used to place and move wood upon the fire.

Late medieval bread ovens, Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (©Grand Tours)

Late medieval bread ovens, Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (©Grand Tours)

Where space (and wealth) allowed, the kitchen fireplace incorporated a brick-built bread oven (sometimes with a stone base), recognisable as a deep, arched, opening into the side of the inglenook. The oven was brought up to temperature by burning brushwood, the ashes from which were raked out (using a long-handled wrought iron or wood spade-like instrument known as a ‘peel’), before placing dough, and sometimes small cakes and biscuits, within the recess to bake. The oven was sealed by a removable wooden door, and later by a hinged cast iron door.

Peels, Haddon

Peels (above) and bread oven doors (below), Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (©Grand Tours)

Bread oven doors, Haddon

Other fitted equipment was commonly used in cooking, such as a wrought iron ‘trammel hook’ (or ‘chimney crane’: an adjustable apparatus used to suspend pots) may have been used for cooking over the open fire.

C17 trammel jamestown

Early wrought iron trammel hook, found during excavations at the colonial settlement at Jamestown, Virginia, US;[xix] and in use within a reconstructed fireplace (centre of image), with cast iron fireback, and ceramic curfew, bottom right (Photo NEN)[xx]

C17 fireplace Diane Earl NEN

Horizontal wrought iron spits were placed across the andirons, and used to turn large joints of meat to ensure even cooking over the fire, whilst smaller pieces of meat were cooked within an iron gridiron or basket spit (cages suspended horizontally over the fire); drip pans were placed beneath spits. Various devises (spit jacks), using ropes, chains, and pulleys, regularly turned the spits, either powered by hand, by the hot air from the fire, or, in some larger houses, small dogs within treadmills![xxi]

Turnspit_Dog_Working

Engraving showing the dog-powered turnspit c. 1800 (Image Wikipedia)[xxii]

Although the kitchens of the royal, aristocratic, and otherwise wealthy had long benefited from the most advanced technologies of the day, there was a delay – in many cases, of several centuries – before small houses had access to even basic amenities. Consequently, most early post-medieval kitchens significantly differed to those of today in that they were rarely built with sinks before the development of the ‘standardised’ terrace house in the mid-late 19th century (which incorporated a scullery extension off the ground floor back room).[xxiii] Water would instead be brought inside from the outdoor source (at this stage usually a well) within earthenware or wooden bowls, and laundry would usually be done outside in the yard, using wooden troughs. However, a shallow stone sink was often fitted in the buttery (see below), or a scullery frequently built as a lean-to extension, or where space allowed, a wash-house built in the back yard, in later years.

Furnishings

This room would have been sparsely furnished in comparison to modern kitchens, containing simple stools or benches, possibly an oak fireside chair, and a table, commonly of ash, to withstand regular scrubbing (with a concoction of salt, rosemary, and vinegar – for abrasion, antiseptic treatment, and to degrease, respectively). The floor of bricks or stone flags, which provided a surface that was less expensive and could be cleaned with water without damage to the material. The windows may have been shuttered at night, although these features seem less common during the 17th century with the wider adoption of glazed windows.

C17 recon farmhouse fireside chair Diane Earl NEN

17th century fireside chair (Photo NEN)[xxiv]

Objects and Ornaments

Bell-metal mortar, Haddon

Bell-metal mortar, Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (©Grand Tours)

Although occupants spent much time in this room, ornaments generally had little place in the 17th century kitchen; however, this room was often filled with numerous objects associated with food preparation, cooking, eating, and drinking, which could to some degree be decorative. The range of artefacts kept and used within the kitchen inevitably depended upon income, need, location, and availability, and changed over time, though often with a long delay between the development of innovations, and their acquisition and use beyond the elite household. Some items were seen as essential by most, in all periods (that is, up until the late 20th century), and where unaffordable to the poorer household, improvisation or community cooperation and exchange became necessary.

17th century cast iron cauldron from Jamestown, Virginia, US[xxv]

Round-bottomed copper alloy (‘bell-metal’ – lead and zinc rich bronze) and brass pans, cauldrons, and skillets (that could be placed directly onto the open fire – requiring the use of long-handled wooden spoons to prevent injury to the cook), had been used for centuries. These continued to be used in many households into (and in some cases beyond) the 19th century; cast iron, though still at this time of poor quality, was also used for these vessels during the 17th century, improving in quality as casting technology developed during the 18th and 19th centuries. But with the provision of the chimney within lower status houses during and after the late 16th century, a wider range of kitchen equipment developed, particularly vessels that could be suspended from the fireplace chimney interior, over the fire. By the 17th century, these included brass, and later better quality cast iron, hanging griddle pans, frying pans, and kettles (which at this time generally consisted of large open pans).

17th century bell-metal cauldron, wrought iron firedog andiron spit jack DE NEN

17th century bell-metal cauldron, wrought iron firedog, andiron, and mechanical spit jack (above); and brass roasting pan, skillet, and wrought iron pot hanger and toasting fork (below) (Photos NEN)[xxvi]

Brass roasting pan skillet toasting fork Diane Earl NEN

Although the kitchen fire was often kept alight for long periods of time (not least due to the difficulty of relighting), a tinderbox was usually kept close by. Kitchenware was often stored on nails in, on and around the fireplace, and on an oak mantel, over which oak spit racks were sometimes kept. Wooden wall racks and shelves were also often used to store equipment. Where there was no pantry, consumables were often stored within a ‘food-safe’: a perforated cupboards (so that air might flow), mounted on the wall (away from vermin).

Table artefacts Diane Earl NEN

17th century table and artefacts, showing taper holder (within pewter bowl, foreground) (Photo NEN)[xxvii]

Vessels both familiar and unfamiliar to us today were used in the kitchen for eating and drinking, with food served in a ‘saucer’ (shallow bowl), on a trencher (by this time a flat round or square plate), platter, a pottinger (or porringer, i.e. deeper bowl), and drink served in beakers, mugs and tankards. They were made from materials that are now rarely used sycamore or beech, or pewter, for plates and bowls; and horn, wood, sometimes leather, and pewter for beakers, mugs (handled drinking vessels), and tankards (lidded mugs).

Shelf pewter plates mugs Diane Earl NEN

17th – 18th century oak shelf with pewter plates and mugs (above), and wall-mounted food safe (below) (Photo NEN)[xxviii]

C17 style wall food safe Diane Earl NEN

The range of cooking utensils was expanding. Elaborate toasting apparatus, made from cast iron, were also sometimes used. With the acquisition of sugar colonies, sugar was increasingly consumed in Britain, giving rise to the need for sugar cutters (large wrought iron pincers), to cut sugar from the ‘loaf’. A mortar and pestle of stone, marble, iron, bronze, brass, or wood, was also usually used in the kitchen, as were brass ladles and nut roasters, and dairy equipment, such as milk skimmers. Cutlery was limited, with personal multi-purpose knives used to stab and cut food, and horn, wooden or pewter spoons (with deeper bowls later in the century) used to eat broths and cereals; simple (two-pronged) forks were only slow adopted, and did not appear in many houses until the 18th century.

C17 cutlery Jamestown

17th century kitchen utensils, with pothooks, bottom right (above), and cutlery (below), found during excavations of Jamestown, Virginia, US[xxix]

035

Other vessels and containers were made of wood and leather, such as leather water buckets, and wooden storage containers, for example for flour. The kitchen salt box was often a wooden lidded box stored next to the fireplace, to keep dry larger amounts of salt than that used when dining socially (see below: The Parlour). Wooden bowls were used for mixing ingredients, and wooden troughs used when kneading and proving dough; and wooden moulds used in making gingerbread.

17th C17 ceramic kitchen storage cooking vessels Jamestown

17th century ceramic kitchen storage and cooking vessels, from excavations of Jamestown, Virginia, US (made both in England and locally)[xxx]

These utilitarian objects were capable of withstanding long use, and the numerous accidents that occur when carrying out domestic chores; some cooking and storage vessels were made of less durable pottery. Being easier to clean, and not affecting the taste of contents, ceramics were the most suitable material for dairying (see below: The Pantry and Buttery). Other ceramic objects include the ‘curfew’: a large ceramic (in later years, metal) dish called a ‘curfew’ was placed over the fire at night, letting the embers smoulder thus both conserving fuel, and as a safety measure.[xxxi] Some cooking vessels were occasionally ceramic, such as the skillet and pipkin.

C17 ceramics Jamestown

Above: 17th century ceramics (including pipkin, bottom centre), from excavations of early settlement phases at Jamestown, Virginia, US[xxxii]

Below: wooden mixing (or blood / keeper) bowl and salting trough, Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (©Grand Tours)

Wooden bowl salting trough, Haddon

THE PANTRY AND BUTTERY

(An)other small room(s), to store food and drink (where space allowed subdivided into pantry and buttery), sometimes led off the kitchen (the pantry reached through the buttery, or vice versa). The pantry would be fitted with wall-mounted wooden storage shelves, and a brick or stone ‘thrall’ (plinth) on which items were placed to cool. The Buttery was used to store ale – which was made in many households. Pantries and butteries were often fitted with sinks in later years.

C17 dairy vessels,  Jamestown

17th century dairy vessels, from excavations of Jamestown, Virginia, US, with a pancheon, top centre[xxxiii]

Dairy products, many of which were made in the home, were usually stored within the pantry, within ceramic vessels (which remained cool, and were easy to clean). The ‘pancheon’ (a large deep bowl, with an interior glaze to overcome the porosity of the earthenware body, which continued in use until after WWI) was commonly used in 17th century dairies and kitchens. Locally made undecorated (with the exception of coloured glaze) earthenware jugs and bowls were also useful in making and storing dairy products. The wooden (or in larger houses, stone) salting trough – within which meat was preserved – was commonly stored in the pantry.

THE PARLOUR

On the other side of the entrance was a room that over the course of the 17th century becoming known as the ‘parlour’. The primary function of this room was as a space for private conversation, entertainment (particularly dining), and recreation (away from domestic servants), and in some situations as a bedchamber, though it was also put to other uses (such as storage) when necessary.

Fixtures and fittings

Modern firedogs and cup-irons, Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (©Grand Tours)

Modern firedogs and cup-irons, Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (©Grand Tours)

In the early 17th century, this room was fitted with a wide open stone and / or brick fireplace, containing wrought iron fire-dogs, ‘cup dogs’ (see above: The Kitchen), and cast iron back. However, this arrangement was frequently modified in later years to suit fashionable tastes (particularly the aspiration towards more ‘genteel’ surroundings), and for efficiency. The grate became increasingly enclosed over time, often culminating in the insertion of a cast iron hob-grate in the 18th century (the recess sometimes decorated with blue and white tin-glazed Delft tiles from Holland, or with English imitations, portraying Biblical stories, or decorated with other simple images), and in the 19th century a register grate. But changes began early in some houses – especially those within coal-rich areas – as coal was increasingly burnt as an alternative to wood. This required a dog grate (a fire-basket: essentially fire dogs with horizontal bars between) to hold the coals; the fender was later introduced to prevent the coals from falling from the hearth.

Modern fire-basket, Haddon

Modern fire-basket, and fragment of mid 17th century rush matting (below), Haddon Hall museum, Derbyshire (©Grand Tours)

C17 rush matting, Haddon

The room would have been lit by the fire, and (only when necessary) by rush tapers in wrought iron holders (see image of kitchen table, above, and as shown here), tallow (and on occasion if sufficiently well off, beeswax) candles in pewter, brass, or ceramic candlesticks, and later in the century, sconces. Oak wainscoting (wall panelling) was fitted in the early 17th century (as reproduced here), and pine panels, which would have been painted, in later decades (as reproduced here).

Candlesticks wick-trimmers Jamestown

17th century candlesticks and wrought iron wick-trimmers, from excavations of early settlement phases at Jamestown, Virginia, US[xxxiv]

Furnishings

17th century oak stool, Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (©Grand Tours)

17th century oak stool, Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (©Grand Tours)

In comparison to humbler dwellings (but more sparsely and less comfortably furnished than the living rooms of most houses today), this room would have been well furnished. Furniture was generally of oak, although mahogany became fashionable in the second half of the century in wealthy households (the expansion of trade to the New World providing access to this timber). The parlours of larger dwellings might house a substantial rectangular table in the early 17th century. However, the oval gate-leg tables of the later 17th century were more suitable for the smaller rooms of less affluent households, as the leafs could be folded when not in use.

Oak gate-leg table and bench, Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (©Grand Tours)

Oak gate-leg table and bench, Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (©Grand Tours)

The room may have contained chairs for adult family members (upholstered if sufficiently well off), and perhaps benches or stools. For those with the means, a court cupboard (display sideboard) and corner cupboard were used for display and storage.

C16-7 Upholstered chair Haddon

17th century (possible reproduction) chair and late 16th – 17th century gate-leg table (above), and court cupboard (below), Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (©Grand Tours)

LC16-7 court cupboard Haddon

Wooden shutters may have enclosed the windows at night (although see above: kitchen), and a single panel of plain woollen fabric, hung from an iron rail, would have kept out drafts from the windows, although pairs of curtains, often decorated, became more popular in later years. Tapestries and painted cloths (perhaps in imitation of tapestries) were often displayed on the walls, and the wide oak floorboards were typically covered by rush matting (see above).

Tapestry, oak table, and chair, Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (©Grand Tours) – much grander than the furnishings of a yeoman cottage!

Tapestry, oak table, and chair, Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (©Grand Tours) – much grander than the furnishings of a yeoman cottage!

Objects and Ornaments

In the earlier 17th century, ornaments were few in comparison to later centuries; many were decorated functional items, predominantly used in social dining, which provided opportunities to exhibit expensive tableware. But with increased trade and manufacturing both provoking and responding to a rise in consumerism, a greater range of objects became available not only to the wealthier ‘middling’ sort, but also those of lesser means, such as the husbandman.

17th century English wine glasses Jamestown

17th century English wine glasses (above), and bottles (below), Jamestown, Virginia, US[xxxv]

17th century English wine bottles, Jamestown

Within affluent households, objects of silver, and imported ‘china’ (porcelain), could be displayed to demonstrate status and position – particularly if embellished with the heraldic device of the family. Glass vessels were not yet commonly used, but were increasingly found within such houses, as were glass bottles.

C17 farmhouse shelf Diane Earl NEN

Reproduction 17th century slip-decorated earthenware, pewter plat, and glasses, on oak display shelf (Photo NEN)[xxxvi]

Yeoman households used pewter (in imitation of silver), and when affordable, tin-glazed earthenware (cobalt blue decoration on a white – pale blue ground) imported from Holland (and subsequently made in England), Italy and France, some of which imitated finer, eastern, ceramics. Stoneware from Germany was also used (up until the middle of the century, brown salt-glazed Bellarmine ‘Bartmann’ or ‘beardman’ ware, shown here, and from the later 17th century, grey and cobalt blue Westerwald ware, shown here, both illustrated in the image beneath the photo below).

17th century English tin-glazed earthenware  Jamestown

17th century English tin-glazed earthenware (above), and German stoneware (below), found at Jamestown, Virginia, US[xxxvii]

17th century German stoneware  Jamestown

Decorated regional ceramics, such as slipped- or scraffito- decorated earthenware, were also often displayed, and used in serving food, and for ‘salts’, used at the table when dining socially. Cutlery developed and became more widely adopted during and after the 17th century (see above: The Kitchen), with simple dining forks, rounded knives, and deep-bowl spoons, slowly adopted outside the elite household, though in houses occupied by lower status families, of pewter rather than silver. Depending on income, paintings and prints may have adorned the walls.

17th century English scraffito-ware Jamestown

Above: 17th century English scraffito-ware, Jamestown, Virginia, US[xxxviii]

Below: 17th farmhouse century table laid with slip-decorated ceramics (Photo NEN)[xxxix]

C17 farmhouse table Diane Earl NEN

BED-CHAMBERS

17th century bedroom Diane Earl NEN

17th century bedroom, within relatively prosperous household (Photo NEN)[xl]

The relatively high roof and wide dimensions of the ground floor rooms of the 17th century yeoman cottage provided sufficient space for an upper floor that could contain bedrooms – an improvement on earlier, and contemporaneous poorer, dwellings (which had only a single ground floor room, with limited loft space above, entered by a ladder when used for sleeping; see above). Wooden stairs to the upper floor were typically placed beside the central chimneystack, and entered by a door beside the fireplace, by the interior rear wall of the kitchen; or in houses built with and entrance lobby, sometimes facing the front door.

The top of centrally placed stairs often led directly into the bedrooms, although a small landing lobby, with doors either side to each bedroom, which were entered by a plank door, were frequently later constructed. In houses with chimneys in each end wall, the stairs would lead into one bedroom, through which the second bedroom was reached. Where there were three rooms of the floor below, there might be a small third bedroom upstairs, again reached through other rooms.

Fixtures and fittings

The bedrooms, being within the eaves, had sloping, often un-plastered, ceilings, and were lit by dormer windows; thick, low, roof timbers might have to be carefully negotiated in the dark! It was not unusual for one bedroom to be more carefully finished in comparison to the other, and used by servants, lodgers, or children. Grates were not usually fitted at this time on the first floor, although upper rooms were lightly warmed by the heat of the chimney.

Furnishings

During the 17th century, beds with wooden frames (as opposed to a mattress placed on a pallet on the floor) were becoming more common for those who could afford this expensive piece of furniture. A typical form was the oak or walnut ‘four-poster’ or ‘tester’, which had several components. Below a mattress of feather and down (contained within ticking) was one of straw, which lay upon the bed-strings: a rope lattice (which had to be often tightened to limit sagging) strung between the rectangular horizontal frame closest to the floor, which was joined at each corner to the upright bedposts. A woollen canopy covered the horizontal rectangular frame closest to the ceiling, and curtains hung from rods attached to this frame to provide warmth, and some degree of privacy. Servants may also have slept within the room, on a truckle, foldout or pallet bed – families commonly slept within the same bed as a matter of course, the children laying either side of their parents). The bedroom would commonly contain an oak chest, used to store clothing, bedding, and private possessions; the room might also contain a stool and / or simple chair.

Late 17th century oak chest Diane Earl NEN

Late 17th century oak chest (Photo NEN)[xli]

Rush matting (see example above) may have been used to limit the drafts that came through the wide oak floorboards; wall hangings may have also kept out drafts (although any expensive tapestries are more likely to have adorned the parlour than the bedroom). During the early 17th century, curtains were likely to have been of plain wool, though more decorative fabrics may have subsequently been used. Bedclothes would have been simple in less wealthy households, with linen being increasingly used for sheets and counterpanes, alongside woollen covers.

Objects and Ornaments

Paintings of sentimental significance may have been hung in the bedrooms of those with sufficient means (although, as with tapestries, such expensive decorations may have been restricted to the parlour) and occasional prints might have decorated the walls. By the 17th century, the bedroom may have had a chamber pot, for use during the night, and during illness. In the less wealthy yeoman’s house might be made of earthenware (a regional sherd of which can be seen here; and complete pot here), although pewter examples are known (e.g. see here).

The second chamber on this floor may have had a variety of functions, depending upon the composition and needs of the household. Where a family member of similar status to that of the ‘bread-winner’ (e.g. a parent or sibling) occupied this room, it may have been furnished well, if not as well as the main bedroom. However, if occupied by domestic servants, apprentices, or farm workers, it would not have been furnished as well or as extensively as the other bedroom (i.e. may have contained only pallet or folding beds, and had no ornamentation), and may also have been used as a store- and / or work-room.

Keys Haddon

17th century iron door keys, Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (©Grand Tours)

The following posts will explore Upper Hall – a manor house built during the early 17th century in South Derbyshire – against which above the information might be compared, bringing the higher social status of the Hall into sharp relief.

Notes:

[i] In comparison to terms previously used to denote social status (e.g. see here for the 16th century) those used in the 17th century (such as within wills and inventories) are less easily defined. The changing nature of commerce, economy, and social organisation at this time may resulted in greater ambiguity surrounding the terms ‘yeoman’ and ‘husbandman’, as opportunities to accumulate capital beyond landownership expanded. For example, potters of the late 17th century might be defined as yeomen, it might be presumed due to their independent social position and accumulation of wealth through trade (e.g. see Lorna Weatherill 1971 The Pottery Trade and North Staffordshire, 1660-1760, p 148). However, in representing landownership (the ‘yeoman’ being of the higher status, as a freeholder), they appear to remain significant well into the 19th century.

[ii] A major element of coursework as an undergraduate student (many years ago now!) at the University of Nottingham was the production of a portfolio. With the benefit of specialists in vernacular architecture on the teaching staff, including Philip Dixon, the requirement of archaeological standing building surveys were informed by a superb series of lectures. I was fortunate enough at the time (1994) to have access to a mid-late 17th century cottage in Lincolnshire. Staying in the property for several days (with my 2-year-old son as surveyor’s assistant!), this proved a fabulous opportunity to study the building in detail over several days, unhindered by furniture or furnishings.

[iii] Photos (which are more quick snaps than technical images) taken during visits made over the past couple of years, to a number of churchyards in and around Derby, are available here; annotations will follow when time allows.

[iv] A large body of work is available on the growth of the ‘middling sort’; freely accessible resources include  ‘The Search For The ‘Middle Sort’ of People’ In England, 1600–1800‘, by H R French (2000); and in Google Books, sections of Margaret R. Hunt’s 1996 The Middling Sort: Commerce, Gender, and the Family in England, 1680-1780.

[v] See note i.

[vi] Images of material culture dating to or around the period covered by this post have been obtained from photos taken of artefacts recovered during excavations of a 17th century site in Virginia, North America, where many English objects were discovered in association with domestic contexts (from the 1957 excavation report, available via Project Gutenburg here. Further, more up-to-date, information on this site can be found hereherehere, and here (several articles and books are also available, some of which can be easily found through internet search engines).

Other images of in situ objects of a similar date were taken by the author at Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (a location full of fabulous late medieval – early post-medieval artefacts), which is certainly worth a visit if in the area: further information can be found on the Haddon Hall website.

The remaining images (except where otherwise noted) have been obtained from the National Education Network Gallery of educational photographic resources, and are the work of Diane Earl, who retains copyright ownership. Please contact this website if their use here is considered as inappropriate.

Unfortunately, there was a dearth of appropriate copyright free images available for bedroom interiors and material culture, though illustrations will be added as and when they may be encountered. Any pointers to more suitable images (i.e. copyright free, non-commercial, and contextually correct) would be welcomed.

[vii] The chronological brackets of this era vary according to geographical location, and often differ within as well as between the various fields of study concerned with historic buildings, remaining a matter for debate.

Archaeological studies in Britain tend to conflate the start of the Early Modern period with that of the post-medieval era (which again has varied definitions, beginning at various points in the late 15th – mid 16th centuries). The termination of the Early Modern era is usually seen as coinciding with the widespread effects of the ‘industrial revolution’, i.e., broadly the late 18th century. Here, the beginning of the post-medieval period, as defined by English Heritage and Historic Environment curators, i.e. AD 1540, will be adopted as a very general starting point for the Early Modern era.

However, it should be remembered that such dates are used merely for the purposes of organising research and source material, and do not reflect the disparity of cultural and social change in the past, which inevitably depend upon access to resources and knowledge, and are affected by economic and political circumstances.

[viii] For example, see Peter Jupp and Claire Gittings (eds.) 1999 Death in England: An Illustrated History.

[ix] For information on this building, see the Haddon Hall website.

[x] Private land around and associated with the house: usually comprising a yard, and often a garden, which became increasingly defined by walls and fences from that of neighbouring properties.

[xi] See note ii. The plans, drawings and photographs from the archaeological survey and interpretation of this building carried out in 1994-95, were unfortunately mislaid by the institution that used them in a display / as a teaching aid, and have yet to be found and recovered. More information on this property can be found on the HER here.

[xii] Top image obtained from the National Education Network: http://gallery.nen.gov.uk/asset60101_218-.html (accessed 3-10-14), ©Diane Earl. Bottom image from John L. Cotter & J. Paul Hudson 1957 (2005), New Discoveries at Jamestown. Site of the First Successful English Settlement in America (accessed 17.30, 2-10-14).

[xiii] Families headed by labourers would occupy less substantial dwellings than those of artisans, generally comprising a single room, sometimes with loft above, and might share such buildings with other families. The poorest families that had some form of roof over their head might reside within a roughly constructed, essentially temporary, building. Archaeological site reports often continue to place such dwellings – alongside the single room cottage with loft – within the somewhat broad and barely defined category of ‘hovel’. Unmarried servants and labourers of this period commonly lived within their employer’s house, or in temporary shelters at their place of work (e.g. shepherd’s bothies).

[xiv] This possibility requires verification; the information was obtained from personal communication with the owner at the time of the building survey (see notes i & v), and derives from associated property documentation.

[xv] Where the chimney had been fitted within a cross-passage, a small entrance lobby would be formed (however, lobbies were also often added later by constructing a diving wall between the front wall and fireplace).

[xvi] The kitchens of medieval halls were located within an associated outbuilding, due to risk of fire and to avoid cooking smells; but due to limited space (and perhaps fewer servants) was situated within less high status dwellings.

[xvii] From NEN (see note vii): http://gallery.nen.gov.uk/asset60057_218-.html

[xviii] Cotter & Hudson, op cit..

[xix] Ibid.

[xx] NEN (op cit.): http://gallery.nen.gov.uk/asset90309_2922-e2bn.html

[xxi] For information on turnspit dogs see, e.g. herehere, and here; the remains of reputedly the last turn-spit dog (the 19th century ‘Whiskey’) was preserved by taxidermy, and is on display at Abegavenny Museum

[xxii] Image accessed 13.30, 6-10-14: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6d/Turnspit_Dog_Working.jpg

[xxiii] There are various reasons for this change (the confines of time and space precluding discussion here – though this topic will likely be considered in future posts). One significant factor was change in credit regulations that enabled those on lower incomes to take advantage of ‘HP’ for more expensive domestic goods such as a gas or electric cooker, which could replace the dirty and inefficient kitchen range. The small ‘portable’ cooker would fit into the scullery, transforming this room into a kitchen-scullery, and the kitchen into a dining room. Sculleries were often used in conjunction with the washhouse, but where no additional washhouse was provided, many terrace houses had a second sink within the cellar (basement); where neither cellar sink nor washhouse was possible, sculleries were often referred to as scullery-washhouses.

[xxiv] NEN (op cit.): http://gallery.nen.gov.uk/asset90312_2922-e2bn.html

[xxv] Cotter & Hudson, op cit..

[xxvi] NEN (op cit.): http://gallery.nen.gov.uk/imagelarge60060-.htmlhttp://gallery.nen.gov.uk/imagelarge60063-.html

[xxvii] Ibid.: http://gallery.nen.gov.uk/asset60069_218-.htmlhttp://gallery.nen.gov.uk/asset60065_218-.html

[xxviii] Ibid.: http://gallery.nen.gov.uk/asset60068_218-.htmlhttp://gallery.nen.gov.uk/asset60079_218-.html

[xxix] Cotter & Hudson, op cit..

[xxx] Ibid.

[xxxi] I must thank the owner of the South Derbyshire house for reminding me of this object, which I had forgotten since being taught about such artefacts in the early 1990s (although my experience of ceramics ‘curfews’ was of those dating to the medieval period).

[xxxii] Cotter & Hudson, op cit..

[xxxiii] Ibid.

[xxxiv] Ibid.

[xxxv] Ibid.

[xxxvi] NEN (op cit.): http://gallery.nen.gov.uk/asset90323_2922-e2bn.html

[xxxvii] Cotter & Hudson, op cit..

[xxxviii] Ibid.

[xxxix] NEN (op cit.): http://gallery.nen.gov.uk/imagelarge60066.htmlhttp://gallery.nen.gov.uk/asset90314_2922-e2bn.html

[xl] Ibid.: http://gallery.nen.gov.uk/asset57988_73-.html

[xli] Ibid.: http://gallery.nen.gov.uk/asset60120_218-.html