Aside

Heanor Industrial Terraced Housing

Thanks to the very kind invitation of the owner, a brief photographic survey was undertaken on an end-terraced housing, dating to 1886, located in Heanor (the exact address is withheld, in order to maintain privacy). The photographs are displayed on Flickr here.

The biographies of the various families residing in this house have been investigated via the census returns, and are outlined as follows.

Families of the Heanor House

The first occupants recorded in the census (1891) are the Bowley family: all but the mother recorded as framework knitters. Whether they worked together from home (within the extended extension at the rear of the house: see the Flickr photostream), or at a nearby workshop is uncertain without further research.

(Apologies for the poorly formatted tables below – attempts to correct this problem are in progress)

In the following census records, Mrs Bowley is listed as a widow, living alone nearby in Loscoe. (The census evidence for the location of the sons is ambiguous, and it is therefore uncertain what became of them):

Name Relation Condition Sex Age Birth Year Occupation, Disability Where Born
BOWLEY, James Head Married M 52 1839 Frame Work Knitter Gotham, Notts
BOWLEY, Elizabeth A Wife Married F 50 1841 Box, Wilts.
BOWLEY, Alfred W Single M 32 1859 Frame Work Knitter Leicester
BOWLEY, Frederick L Single M 17 1874 Frame Work Knitter South Wales, Brec.

1901

Name Relation Condition Sex Age Birth Year Occupation 
Disability
Where Born ere born
BOWLEY, Elizabeth A Head Widow F 59 1842 Living On Own Means Box, Wiltshire

1911

Name Relation Condition/
Yrs married
Sex Age Birth Year Occupation Where Born
BOWLEY, Elizabeth Angelina Widow  F 69 1842 Box Wilts

Parish records suggest that the head of the house died in April 1893:

First name(s): James
Last name BOWLEY
Date of burial: 25 Apr 1893
Age at death: 54
Calculated year of birth: 1839
Place of burial: Heanor
Dedication: St Lawrence
County: Derbyshire
Denomination: Anglican
Record source: National Burial Index
Data provider: Derbyshire Ancestral Research Group

The more detailed 1911 census records that she had given birth to four children, three of whom had lived, which suggests that at least one child had left home before the family moved into the Heanor house.

This is evident in the earlier census records. The 1881 indicates the name and age of the entire family; it also demonstrates that one of the children (George or Edwin) died between 1881 and 1891:

Name Relation Condition Sex Age Birth Year Occupation , Disability Where Born
BOWLEY, James Head Married  M 42 1839 Stationer & Cotton Weaver Gotham, Nottinghamshire
BOWLEY, Elizabeth A Wife Married  F 40 1841 Box, Wiltshire
BOWLEY, Edwin J L Son Single  M 13 1868 Scholar Gotham, Nottinghamshire
BOWLEY, Alfred W Son Single  M 12 1869 Scholar Leicester, Leicestershire
BOWLEY, George J Son Single  M 9 1872 Scholar Wellingboro’, Northamptonshire
BOWLEY, Frederick L Son Single  M 7 1874 Scholar Brecknockshire, Wales

As there is no evidence in the census for Edwin in 1891, but there is possible evidence for George (who may have become a farm servant in Gotham, Notts.), it seems likely that it was the former who died. The records of death during this time within the region record only an un-named male Bowley, registered as dying in late 1887, and one George Bowley dying in spring 1881.

It can also be seen that Mr Bowley was both weaver and shop-keeper at this time; the family lived at West Hill, Heanor (an address that doesn’t appear on modern maps by this name). The family had moved since the previous census from Wellingborough, Northants. (where the second youngest son George had been born).


The 1901 census records a change in occupants, who (again apart from the mother) all work in local industries:

Name Relation Condition Sex Age Birth Year Occupation , Disability Where Born
WRIGHT, George Head Married M 56 1845 Coal Miner Hewer Denby, Derbyshire
WRIGHT, Eliza Wife Married F 55 1846 Heanor, Derbyshire
WRIGHT, Albert Son Single M 21 1880 Coal Miner Hewer Heanor, Derbyshire
WRIGHT, Robert N Son Single M 18 1883 Plainer At Iron Foundry Heanor, Derbyshire
WRIGHT, William Son Single M 16 1885 Shoemaker Heanor, Derbyshire

According to the 1891 census, the Wright family had previously lived in nearby Loscoe:

Name Relation Condition Sex Age Birth Year Occupation , Disability Where Born
WRIGHT, George Head Married  M 46 1845 Coal Miner Denby, Derbyshire
WRIGHT, Eliza Wife Married  F 45 1846 Heanor, Derbyshire
WRIGHT, Mary Daughter Single  F 22 1869 Assistant Teacher Heanor, Derbyshire
WRIGHT, Charles Son Single  M 16 1875 Coal Miner Heanor, Derbyshire
WRIGHT, George Son Single  M 14 1877 Coal Miner Heanor, Derbyshire
WRIGHT, Albert Son Single  M 11 1880 Scholar Heanor, Derbyshire
WRIGHT, Robert N Son Single  M 8 1883 Scholar Heanor, Derbyshire
WRIGHT, William Son  M 6 1885 Scholar Heanor, Derbyshire
BENNISTON, George Nephew Single  M 16 1875 Coal Miner Heanor, Derbyshire

By 1901, the three elder children had left home. There are several possible entries for the son Charles (who may by this time have married); the most likely entry lists the son George living in nearby Loscoe:

Name Relation Condition Sex Age Birth Year Occupation , Disability Where Born
WRIGHT, George Head Married  M 24 1877 Coal Miner Hewer Heanor, Derbyshire
WRIGHT, Lucy Wife Married  F 25 1876 Denby, Derbyshire
WRIGHT, Mary E Daughter  F 1 1900 Heanor, Derbyshire

The nephew George also lives nearby, at 6 Wellington Street, Heanor:

Name Relation Condition Sex Age Birth Year Occupation , Disability Where Born
BENNISTON, George Head Married  M 25 1876 Coal Miner Hewer Heanor, Derbyshire
BENNISTON, Margaret Wife Married  F 23 1878 Greenhill Lane Ridding, Derbyshire
BENNISTON, Ernest H Son  M 2 1899 Heanor, Derbyshire
BENNISTON, Charles W Son  M 1 1900 Heanor, Derbyshire

From the 1901 census, it would be difficult to find Mary Wright; her name is common, so there are numerous entries for (and she may have changed her last name through marriage). However, the 1911 census reveals her fate, and that of Mr and Mrs Wright:

Name Relation Condition/
Yrs married
Sex Age Birth Year Occupation Where Born
GARD, John Mason Head Married
19 years
 M 39 1872 Storekeeper Gas Works Langley Mill Derbyshire
GARD, Mary Wife Married
19 years
 F 42 1869 School Teacher Elementary Heanor Derbyshire
GARD, Olive Gostwyck Daughter Single  F 16 1895 School Langley Mill Derbyshire
GARD, George Son  M 12 1899 School Langley Mill Derbyshire
GARD, Albert Son  M 10 1901 School Langley Mill Derbyshire
WRIGHT, George Father In Law Married
43 years
 M 66 1845 Retired Coal Miner Hewer Denby Derbyshire
WRIGHT, Eliza Mother In Law Married  F 65 1846 Heanor Derbyshire

As often occurred, Mrs and Mrs Wright live with their daughter and her family (nearby, at Fletcher Street, Heanor). Mary is married, but continues to work as a school teacher (quite unusual for a woman at the time, but this is perhaps a necessity in order to support her parents; her mother may have provided helpful childcare support).


The final available census (1911) records another family living in the house change in occupants, again working in the hosiery industry (apart from the mother).

Name Relation Condition/
Yrs married
Sex Age Birth Year Occupation Where Born
MURPHY, John Head Married M 50 1861 Hosiery Trimmer Sheffield Yorks
MURPHY, Mary Wife Married
29 years
F 51 1860 Leicester Leicester
MURPHY, Mary Ann Daughter Single F 28 1883 Loughbro Leicester
MURPHY, John Son Single M 19 1892 Hosiery Bleacher Heanor Derbys
MURPHY, Arthur Son Single M 14 1897 Hosiery Trimmer Codnor Derbys

In the previous census (1901), the Murphy family are living nearby in Loscoe Road, Heanor:

Name Relation Condition Sex Age Birth Year Occupation, Disability Where Born
MURPHY, John Head Married  M 40 1861 Hosiery Trimmer Sheffield, Yorkshire
MURPHY, Mary Wife Married  F 41 1860 Leicester
MURPHY, Mary A Daughter Single  F 18 1883 Loughborough, Leicestershire
MURPHY, John Son  M 9 1892 Heanor, Derbyshire
MURPHY, Arthur E Son  M 11 1890 Codnor, Derbyshire

Due to the common occurrence of the names, further research is needed to determine the whereabouts of the family in 1891


Further information:

  • Description of the stocking frame here
  • Industrial Archaeologist Prof. Marilyn Palmer’s Shire book on framework knitting is available through Google Books here
  • Further information on framework knitting in the East Midlands here
  • An article on Leicester framework knitter’s housing can be found here
  • An image of a possible (smaller) 1890s Nottinghamshire framework knitter’s house interior can be seen here
  • More information on framework knitting in the region during the 19th century:

http://www.knittingtogether.org.uk/doca76d.html?doc=7364&cat=740

http://www.knittingtogether.org.uk/

http://www.frameworkknittersmuseum.org.uk/

http://www.nottsheritagegateway.org.uk/people/frameworkknitters.htm

  • Information on Heanor Local History (including framework knitting) here

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